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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the types of folds?
Anticline, syncline; asymetrical, overturned and recumband. Also plunge is important.
What is the difference between a hanging wall and a footwall?
Hanging wall is above the fault; footwall is below the fault.
What are the types of faults?
Normal, reverse, thrust, strike-slip and oblique-slip.
What is the definition of structual geology? What are the thre scales of it? The three types?
It is the study of the deformation of rocks associated with plate tectonics. Micro-, meso- and marcoscopic. Compressional, tensional and sheering.
What are the components of attitude?
Stike, dip, dip direction.
What is a fault? What is a joint?
A fault is a break in rock along which the rocks move parrallel to the fault plane. A joint is a break with movement only perpindicular to the break.
What are internal processes? What are external processes?
Internal are when landforms are created within the earth's crust (like volcanism). External are surficial processes where weathering and erosion break materials down.
What are the types of weathering? How are they classifed?
Physical weathering is the disintegration of rocks and minerals, dealing with pressure. Chemical weathering is the decomposition of minerals and subsequent rocks, turning stable rocks into unstable ones.
What are the types of Mechanical weathering?
Frost action, pressure unloading, salt crysalt formation, root wedging and thermal expansion/contraction.
What are the types of chemical weathering?
Solution, oxidation and hydrolosis.
What affects the rate and extent of weathering?
Climate: temperature and percipitatoin. Parent material: composition, number of fractures and grain size.
What makes up a soil?
Solid, organic, gaseous or liquid materials.
What is the importance of weathering?
Makes raw materials for formation of new rocks. Makes raw materials for nutrients and soils.
What are the factors important in the development of soil?
Climate, parent material, topography, biological factors and time.
What is the soil profile? What are the soil horizons? What are the types of soils?
Imature soils, young soils, mature soils. Leafy litter, topsoil, subsoil, parent material. Grassland, desert, caniferous, deciduous and tropic.
How do you classify sedimentary rocks? What are the types of each?
Clastic or chemical (or biochemical). Gravel, sand, mudstones. Limestones, evaporates, fossils, coal, coqina.
What is a detrital sed. rock?
A rock formed out of compacted sediments derived from weathering.
What is a chemical sed. rock?
A rock formed out of compacted sediments percipitated out of solution.
What is a biochemical sed. rock?
A rock formed out of compacted sediments derived from biological material or from minerals secreted from organisms.
What is lithification? What is the cement? What are the three main types of cememnt?
Compaction, expolsion of water, and cementation. The cements are minerals precipitated out of solution by chemical processes that bond sediments together. The three types are calcite, hematite and silica.
What are some geological structures?
Layers or strata, trough structure, fossils, ripple marks.
What are some depositional environments?
Delta beds, continental shelf, continental slope.
What are the two main geologic uses of sed. rocks?
Help geologists draw conclusions about the earth's history, and are a major source of fossil fuels.
What are the three main factors in the creation of sedimentary rocks?
Transportation, erosion and weathering.
What are the three main factors in the formation of meta. rocks?
Pressure, heat and fluid activity.
How do you classify meta. rocks?
Foliated and non-foliated.
What are the prerequisits for each?
Foliated require previous layering and many minerals. They are classifed as fine or coarse grain. Nonfoliated are monomineraliic or very fine grained.
What is gradation? What are the sequences of increasing metamorphism for mineral, foliated and nonfoliated rocks?
Gradation is minearls and rocks only being able to form at certain pressures and heats. They are chlorite, biotite, garnet, staurolite and kynatie. Foliated rocks: slate, phyllite, schist, gneiss, amphibole. Nonfoliated: marble, quartzite, greenstone, hornfels.
What are the types of metamorphism?
Contact: near surface, creates hornfels; aureoles; mostly temperature and fluid activity, size of intrusion, divergent plate boundaries. Dynamic: mostly pressure near faults; mylonites; localized; transform plate boundaries. Regional: large-scale; convergent plate boundaries, pressure first, then heat.
What are the three types of strain?
Elastic is when rocks don't break. Plastic is when rocks bend and stay. Fracture is when rocks break if more brittle.
What are the general types of soil?
Residual is a body of rock weathered forming soil in place. Tranported soil develops on weatehred materail that has been eroded and trasnported from the weathing site.
What are the climate-specific types of soil?
Pedalfers form where abudnant moisture is present such as humid regions in the east; most of the soluble minerals have been leached from horizon A. Pedocals are in arid and semiarid west and southwest; contain less organic matter, less intense chical weathering. Laterite forms in the tropics where chemical weathering is intense and leaching of minerals is complete; red soils.
What are the specifics of parent material's effects on soil formation?
Parent rocks are weathered differently and thus allow for more abundant or less abundant sources for soil creation.
What is the difference between strain and stress?
Strain deals with elastic, plastic and fracture. Stress is compression, tension shearing.