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68 Cards in this Set

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Geology
The Science that studies 1) Earth’s Material 2) Earth’s History 3)Processes that
Shape the Earth
What is the roll of geology in society
To manage the our natural rescources/Hazard Control
Parts of an Atom
Nucleus, Neutron, Proton, Electron
Ion
A charged Atom
Isotope
An atom with a different number of neutrons in the nucleus
cation
An ion with a positive charge
Anion
An ion with a negative charge
Ionic Bond
Transfer of electrons between cation and anion. Medium Strength.
Covalent Bond
Sharing of electrons between atoms. Strong Bond
Metallic
Electrons are shared but move around freely.conduct electricity
Van der Walls Bonds
Weak, sheets.
How does bond strength relate to mineral hardness?
The stronger the bond the harder the mineral.
What are the most common elements on Earth, by weight?
Silicon and Oxygen
What are the requirements a substance must meet to be a mineral?
1) Certain chemical formula
2) A specific shape
3) Inorganic process
4) Naturally Formed
5) Solid
Cleavage
A preferred plane of weakness along which some crystals break.
crystal form
The outward expression of the internal arrangement of atoms.
hardness
A mineral’s resistance to scratching. Hardness is directly related to the strength of a bonds.
streak
The color of a powdered mineral.
density
The weight per volume of a mineral.
Color
Not good for identifying minerals.
luster.
The way in which a mineral reflects light.
Properites of Minerals (8)
Crystal form, Habit, Cleavage, Hardness, Luster, Color, Streak, Density
What is the Moss hardness scale?
A unit less comparison of relative hardness of minerals.
Rock
a coherent, naturally occurring solid, consisting of an aggregate of one or more minerals, or a mass of natural glass or organic matter.
Plutonic
An igneous rock that cools underground
Volcanic
An igneous rock that cools above ground.
Freeze
Freezing occurs as a substance transitions from a liquid to a solid. Rock change from liquid to solids at between 800 and 1200 degrees C.
Aphanitic
Fine grained, above ground, Lava. Igneous Rocks
Phaneritic
Coarse Grained, below ground, Magma. Igneous Rocks
Magma
molten material below the Earth's surface
Lava
Molten material above the Earth's surface
Intrusive
cools and solidifies below the Earth's surface.
Extrusive
cools and solidifies above the Earths' surface.
Mafic
low SiO2, high Iron Magnesium. Dark
Felsic/Silicic
high SiO2, aluminum, calcium, sodium. light
Visoscity
resistance to flow. Viscosity increases as silica content increases.
Texture
Ovedrall appearance, related to size, shape, and arrangement of minerals. Related to cooling history, not chemistry.
What are the sources of heat that causes rocks to melt?
radioactive decay
What factors control melting?
Tempurature, Pressure, Water Content.
Prune Effect theory
The molten Earth cools and contracts
The crust wrinkles and crumples
Mountains form
Expanding Earth theory.
20th century - radioactive decay
Land masses are ripped apart
Explains the continents
Continental Drift theory.
- An idea before its time
- Alfred Wegener 1915
- Processor to plate tectonics
lines of evidence supporting the Continental Drift theory (5)
Matching Coastlines
Matching Geology
Glacial Deposits
Fossil Evidence
Apparent Polar Wandering
Pangaea
super-continent 200 million years ago
Plate Tectonics
Tectonic cycle- deals with the movement and interactions of the lithospheric plates.
driving force behind Plate Tectonics
convection currents, radioactive decay
Which is older, oceanic or continental crust?
Continental
three types of plate boundaries
Divergent, Transform, Convergent.
Divergent
Two going apart, rift valleys, spreading seas
Transorms
Two rubbing, earthquakes
Convergent
Two meeting, volacnoes, mountains.
main types of weathering(2)
Mechanical and Chemical
different types of mechanical weathering (5)
Frost, Salt, Biological, Unloading, Thermal
different types of Chemical weathering (3)
Ion exchange, dissolution, Oxidation
Frost Wedging
water penetrates into cracks, expands when it freezes
Salt Wedging
growth of minerals in cracks
Biological Wedging
plant roots penetrate into cracks causing cracks to widen
Unloading
removal of deep burial
Thermal expansion
repeated daily heating and cooling of rock
Ion Exchange
H+ replaces other cations
Dissolution
mineral completly dissolves, only ions
Oxidation
reaction in which elements gain/lose electrons
which influence the rate of weathering (3)
Rock Structures, Topography, Climate
regolith
blanket of loose, weatherd rock debris covering unweathered bedrock.
soil
uppermost part of regolith
How does water transport material?
Saltation, Bed load, Suspension load
How does wind transport material?
saltation, bed load, suspension load
How does ice transport material?
Plowing, Plucking, Abrasion