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27 Cards in this Set

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What types of rocks are stratigraphic principles applied to?
all types of rocks--most commonly to sedimentary rocks
What are the average %s of sedimentary rock types that cover the Earth's surface for limestone, sandstone, and shale?
50& limestone, 30% sandstone, 20% shale
Law of Superposition
oldest rocks on the bottom, youngest on the top
Law of Original Horizontality
all rocks deposited in horizontal manner
Law of Lateral Continuity
rocks are deposited continually and extended in all directions until they run into something
Law of Cross-Cutting Relationships
if something cuts through a rock, then it is younger than the rock that has been cut through
Law of Inclusions
rock fragments in another rock must be older than new rock; there must be a source to have inclusions
Law of Faunal Succession
invertabrate animals found in rock layers appear in a predictable sequence
Principle of Uniformitarianism
Earth's landscape developed over long periods of time through a variety of slow geologic processes
What does the phrase, "The Present is the Key to the Past!" mean?
as far as we know, things that happen today happened the same in the past
What are unconformities?
a gap in the rock record
What events can cause unconformities?
major sea level changes, major tectonic events, long-term erosion, or long-term deposition
How much geologic time does it take to make an unconformity?
tens of millions of years
Angular Unconformity:
separates older from younger rocks; the older is tilted at an angle, and the younger is horizontal
Nonconformity:
sediments deposited on erosional surface that cuts across igneous or metamorphic rocks
Disconformity:
boundary between parallel beds of sedimentary rocks
What are marine facies?
they grade laterally into other sedimentary accumulations that were formed at the same time but exhibit different characteristics because their depositional environments were different
Transgression:
sea level rises and deeper water facies overlie shallow water facies
reegression:
sea level drops and shallow water facies overlie deeper water facies
what is a fault?
a fracture in a rock which movement takes place
normal fault
headwall drops down compared to the footwall because of tensional forces
reverse fault
headwall moves up in relation to the footwall
thrust fault
looks like headwall is thrust over the footwall in a 45 degree or less angle
strike-slip fault
plates slide past each other, no headwall or footwall
oblique slip faults
moves upward and outward-everything moves
horst fault
complex fault: a block of rock goes down between two rocks. known as rift valleys on a large scale
graben fault
a block of rock moves up between two rocks