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40 Cards in this Set

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What percentage of the Earth's continental surface is covered by sedimentary rocks?
75%
What are the five steps to form a sedimentary rock?
weathering, transportation, deposition, compaction, lithification
What is rock strata?
layers
Sedimentary rocks typically occur in what form?
layers (or strata)
What is a clast?
part of another rock that is weathered away/broken from another rock
What does the texture of a sedimentary rock do?
serves as an indicator of the type of energy levels
moving water=
high energy environment
quiet water=
low energy environment
poor sediment sorting=
inconsistent energy conditions
good sediment sorting=
consistent energy conditions
What is the sediment size range for sandstone?
.0625-2 mm
Quartz sandstone:
spent a long time in depositional basin; climate probably humid because feldspars weathered away and formed clay
arkose sandstone:
rich in feldspars; fizzes (has effervescence); comes from rapid weathering of granite rocks
lithic sandstone:
"dirty sandstone"; high volume of clay; sand size particles poorly sorted; forms in seas near fast-rising mountains; fresh sediment that doesn't fully weather down
what is the sediment size range of conglomerates and breccias?
at least 2mm
What type of sediments does a conglomerate have?
rounded
What type of sediments does a breccia have?
angular
What depositional environment do conglomerates and breccias form in?
in high-energy environments where rocks are eroded and carried downhill so fast that they don't get broken down
Shale:
detrital, clastic sedimentary rock formed by compaction of clay, silt, or mud--very low energy conditions
Chemical sedimentary rocks:
formed from salt from water in the ocean or from a lake; reacts with acid
Limestone:
usually contains the calcite and reacts with acid
chert and flint:
forms where sponges and oceanic creatures get fossilized in limestone and they are replaced by silica
gypsum:
calcium sulfate with 2 molecules of water
Halite:
rock salt
Coal:
fossil fuel created from the remains of plants that lived and died about 100-400 million years ago when parts of earth were covered with huge swampy forests
Bedding:
commonly show layering and other structures created by movement of sediment, sorting of sediment, etc.
cross bedding:
angularly bedding sandstone formed by wind or water commonly in dunes, streams, deposits, and tidal areas
graded bedding:
characterized by progressive decrease in grain size--big grains on bottom, fine on top
ripple marks:
occur due to movement in water and the mark is left behind in the rock
mud cracks:
occurs when water evaporates and mud loses its moisture
sole marks:
develop as irregularity on bottom of rock layer; it's a cast of a depression on the top surface of the underlying rock
alluvial fan:
fan-shaped deposits of gravel, sand, and mud that accumlate many basins at bases of mtn. ranges--only on dry land
trace fossils:
represents something was there at one time but not anymore
Eolian environment:
desert with wind--arid regions
Swamp environment:
humd regions w/ plant and tree lige still in water conditions--coal reserves
Lacustrine environment:
lake--no salt water; continental lowlands, freshwater lakes; very low energy conditions; shale is common
Glacial environment:
areas where sediment is deposited by glaciers; occurs at megins of ice
Marine environment:
salt water in ocean (or sea); lagoons, continental shelf and deep ocean basins
Shoreline environments
along continental edges where wave action erodes bedrock and soil; where ocean touches continents
Fluvial environment:
rivers, streams, tributaries, and deltas