Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What percentage of the Earth's continental surface is covered by sedimentary rocks?
What are the five steps to form a sedimentary rock?
weathering, transportation, deposition, compaction, lithification
What is rock strata?
Sedimentary rocks typically occur in what form?
layers (or strata)
What is a clast?
part of another rock that is weathered away/broken from another rock
What does the texture of a sedimentary rock do?
serves as an indicator of the type of energy levels
moving water=
high energy environment
quiet water=
low energy environment
poor sediment sorting=
inconsistent energy conditions
good sediment sorting=
consistent energy conditions
What is the sediment size range for sandstone?
.0625-2 mm
Quartz sandstone:
spent a long time in depositional basin; climate probably humid because feldspars weathered away and formed clay
arkose sandstone:
rich in feldspars; fizzes (has effervescence); comes from rapid weathering of granite rocks
lithic sandstone:
"dirty sandstone"; high volume of clay; sand size particles poorly sorted; forms in seas near fast-rising mountains; fresh sediment that doesn't fully weather down
what is the sediment size range of conglomerates and breccias?
at least 2mm
What type of sediments does a conglomerate have?
What type of sediments does a breccia have?
What depositional environment do conglomerates and breccias form in?
in high-energy environments where rocks are eroded and carried downhill so fast that they don't get broken down
detrital, clastic sedimentary rock formed by compaction of clay, silt, or mud--very low energy conditions
Chemical sedimentary rocks:
formed from salt from water in the ocean or from a lake; reacts with acid
usually contains the calcite and reacts with acid
chert and flint:
forms where sponges and oceanic creatures get fossilized in limestone and they are replaced by silica
calcium sulfate with 2 molecules of water
rock salt
fossil fuel created from the remains of plants that lived and died about 100-400 million years ago when parts of earth were covered with huge swampy forests
commonly show layering and other structures created by movement of sediment, sorting of sediment, etc.
cross bedding:
angularly bedding sandstone formed by wind or water commonly in dunes, streams, deposits, and tidal areas
graded bedding:
characterized by progressive decrease in grain size--big grains on bottom, fine on top
ripple marks:
occur due to movement in water and the mark is left behind in the rock
mud cracks:
occurs when water evaporates and mud loses its moisture
sole marks:
develop as irregularity on bottom of rock layer; it's a cast of a depression on the top surface of the underlying rock
alluvial fan:
fan-shaped deposits of gravel, sand, and mud that accumlate many basins at bases of mtn. ranges--only on dry land
trace fossils:
represents something was there at one time but not anymore
Eolian environment:
desert with wind--arid regions
Swamp environment:
humd regions w/ plant and tree lige still in water conditions--coal reserves
Lacustrine environment:
lake--no salt water; continental lowlands, freshwater lakes; very low energy conditions; shale is common
Glacial environment:
areas where sediment is deposited by glaciers; occurs at megins of ice
Marine environment:
salt water in ocean (or sea); lagoons, continental shelf and deep ocean basins
Shoreline environments
along continental edges where wave action erodes bedrock and soil; where ocean touches continents
Fluvial environment:
rivers, streams, tributaries, and deltas