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21 Cards in this Set

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Strike
-perpendicular to the direction of the dip
-direction of line of intersection
Dip
-angle at which a rock layer or fault is inclined from the horizontal
-at a right angle to the strike
tension
-pulls a rock body apart
Compression
-pushes a rock body inwards
Shear
-when two adjacent parts of a rock body slide agaisnt each other
Brittle Deformaton
fractures (faults)
Ductile Deformation
does not fracture (folds)
Anticline
-formed by upfolding or arching of rock layers
sycline
-formed by downfolding of rock layers
Faults
-fractures in the crust upon which displacement has taken place
Normal Faults
- steep dips of about 60%
-flatten out with depth
-ex:dip slip fault
-hanging wall moves down relative to foot wall
Reverse Faults
-dips greater than 45%
-horizontal shortening of the crust
-hanging wall moves up relative to foot wall
Thrust Faults
-dips less than 45%
-horizontal shortening of the crust
Plunging anticline or syncline
- when the axis of the fold penetrates into the ground
Domes
- a circular or elongated sturcutre caused by upwarping
Basins
-similar to a dome, but caused by downwarping
Dip Slip Faults vs. Strike Slip Faults
dip slip-vertical
strike slip- lateral or horizontal
Black Hills, South Dakota
Structural Basin
San Andreas Fault
long, linear valleys
Grabens
flat, sediment filled valleys
Horsts
abruptly rising bedrock ranges