Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/33

Click to flip

33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Because of its great hardness, diamond cannot be cleaved in any direction
False
Specific gravity is the ratio of a mass of substance to the mass of an equal volume of air
False
Mica is an example of a mineral with perfect cleavage
True
In order of a particular type of mineral to be classified as a minteral, it must______

a) be a solid
b) occur naturally
c) have a crystalline structure
d) have a definite chemical composition
e) all of the previous answers are correct
e) all of the previous answers are correct
All atoms of a given element (for example, all carbon atoms) contain the same characteristic number of ______ in their nuclei as all other atoms of that element.
protons
The atomic mass number of an atom is the total number of ____ in the atom
protons and neutrons
If the total number of electrons for a given atom is one more than the total number of protons, the atom will be _____.
a negative ion
Carbon-12 is the most abundant _____ of carbon
isotope
Carbon-14 has 8 ______.
neutrons
The sodium cation Na+ has one less _____ than it has ____.
electrons and protons
The two most abundant elements in Earth's crust are _____.
oxygen and silicon
When seawater evaporates its sodium and chlorine combine to precipitate as _____.
halite (NaCI, salt)
The important mineral _____ has three directions of cleavage to form a rhombohedron or "squashed box." and effervesces (fizzes) in dilute acid.
calcite
The group of minerals known as the _____ are sheet silicates characterized by one direction of cleavage.
micas
The most abundant group of mineral in the crust is the ______ group.
quartz
Mineral cleavage refers to flat external faces on a mineral grain created _____
when the grain is broken along planes of weakness in its atomic structure
A silica tetrahedron is composed of four atoms of the element ____ and one atom of ______
oxygen and silicon
The mineral _____ has isolated silica tetrahedra in its lattice structure
olivine
The group of minerals known as the _____ contain single chains of silica tetrahedra in their struture.
pyroxenes
The group of minerals known as the _____ contain double chains of silica tetrahedra in their structure.
amphiboles
The group of minerals known as the _____ contain planar sheets of silica tetrahedra in their structure.
mica (biotite, muscovite, etc)
The group of minerals known as the _____ have a complex framework structure in which the oxygen atoms are shared by adjacent silica tetrahedra.
feldspar
THe mineral _____ is an example of an elemental mineral, because it is composed of just one element rather than being a compound of different elements.
graphite
Geologist use the word ____ to describe the color of a fine powder of a mineral, as might be left by a relatively soft mineral on a piece of white unglazed porcelain.
streak
Some mineral specimens are ____, which means that you can see clearly through the mineral
transparent
______ is a characteristic of a mineral that is either metallic or nonmetallic
Luster
The hardest mineral is _____
diamond
The hardest mineral has a hardness of _____ on Mohs relative hardness scale.
10
Calcite has ____ directions of cleavage.
3
Some minerals, like _____, do not cleave along regular planes (because there are no planes of weakness in their crystal structure), but instead fracture along irregular surfaces that are commonly curved.
quartz
The mineral _____ commonly develops through the evaporation of seawater and has a salty taste.
halite
The mineral _____ is strongly magnetic, and specimens of _____commonly fluoresce in ultraviolent light
magnetite and fluorite
Minerals in the ____ family of chain silicates have two directions of cleavage that are oriented approzimately at right angeles (-90 degrees) to one another
pyroxene