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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
continental shelf
gently sloping submerged surface extending from the shoreline toward the deep-ocean basin
Passive continental margins
-found alon coastal areas
-little volcanoism
-contain mineral deposits
-undisturbed sediment
Active Continental Margins
-where oceanic lithosphere is subducted beanth edge of a continet
-narrow margin
-deformed sediments
-Pacific Rim
Continental Slope
deep structure
-marks boudary between continental crust and oceanic crust
Continental Rises
-gradual incline
-slope drops to around 1/3 degrees
-thick sediment moving downslope
deep ocean trenches
-long narrow creases in the seafloor
-form in deepest parts of seafloor
Abyssal Plains
-deep flat feature
-coast of Argentina
- found in all oceans
-shield volcanoes that rise hundreds of meters above surrounding topography
oceanic ridge
-broad linear swell
-elevated position
-extensive faulting
-associated earthquakes
-largest topographic feature
rift zones
narrow areas where seafloor spreading occurs
sheeted dike complex
when new dikes intrude older dikes which are still warm and weak
pillow basalts
tube shaped protuberances, forward motion occurs as lava accumulates behind congealed margin and breaks through
continental rift
elongated depression in which entire thickness of the lithosphere was deformed
mantle plume
hotter than nomral mantle rock that has a mushroom shaped head, hundreds of km in diameter
turbidity current
downslope movement of dense , sediment-laden water created when sand and mud on the continental shelf and slope are dislodged.
Black Smoker
a hydrothermal vent on the ocean floor that emits a black cloud of hot metal-rich water
Ophiolite Complex
sequence of rocks that make up the oceanic crust (pillow basalts, sheeted dikes, gabbro)
turbidity current deposit characterized by graded bedding
Submarine canyon
seaward extension of a valley that was cut on the continental shelf during the time when sea level was lower.
hot spot
concentration of heat in the mantle, capable of producing magma that in turn extrudes onto Earth's surface
coral island consisting of nearly continuous ring of coral reef surrounding a central lagoon
isolated volcanic peak that rises at 1000 meters above the deep ocean floor
flat topped seamount