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38 Cards in this Set

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Define a mineral.
naturally occurring, inorganic solid with a definite chemical composition and crystal structure
what are minerals composed of?
atoms
What determines the mineral's characteristic?
how the atoms align themselves
Approx. how many minerals have been identified?
2500
About how many common minerals are found in rocks?
12
Name the 5 places that minerals originate.
1. crystallization of molten rock material (or magma) 2. precipitation from hot water associated with magma in hydrothermal veins 3. precipitation from sea or lake water 4. material metabolized by organisms to construct shells 5. during metamorphism
Describe quartz.
glassy-looking, transparent material that can be a variety of colors, has a hardness of 7, in silicate mineral group
Describe feldspar.
It is the most common in the Earth's crust; it is dull w/ a porcelein-like appearance; red, pink, and white
Describe mica.
has the characteristic of peeling into think flat smooth sheets or flakes
Which type of mica is white and pearly?
muscovite
Which type of mica is dark and shiny?
biotite
Describe pyroxene.
dark to black and forms short, stubby crystals w/ square or rectangular cross-sections
What is the most common type of pyroxene?
augite
Describe amphibole.
dark, long, thin and shiny; mineral cross-sections are diamond shaped
What is the most common type of an amphibole?
hornblende
Describe olivine.
Yellow-green, glassy and translucent; usually in igneous rocks or as granular masses
Describe calcite.
White to gray; usually found in limestone.
Describe pyrite.
fool's gold
What types of minerals make up granite?
quartz and feldspar
What type of minerals make up rhyolite?
silica, potassium, and sodium
What type of minerals make up gabbro?
silica, pyroxene, amphiboles, and feldspar
What type of minerals make up basalt?
silica, pyroxene and amphiboles
What type of minerals make up limestone?
calcium carbonate
What type of minerals make up gneiss?
quartz, hornblende, and feldspars
What type of minerals make up schist?
mice
What type of minerals make up sandstone?
quartz
What does effervescence mean?
when some minerals are exposed to acid, they fizz
What does flourescence mean?
when some minerals are exposed to black light, they glow
2 on Moh's hardness scale?
Gypsum
6 on Moh's hardness scale?
orthoclase
10 on Moh's hardness scale?
diamond
5 on Moh's hardness scale?
apatite
3 on Moh's hardness scale?
Calcite
9 on Moh's hardness scale?
Colundum
7 on Moh's hardness scale?
Quartz
4 on Moh's hardness scale?
fluorite
1 on Moh's hardness scale?
talc
8 on Moh's hardness scale?
topaz