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73 Cards in this Set

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What rock makes up the mantle?
Peridotite
What is the boudary between the crust and the mantle?
Moho
How do we know about the upper mantle?
By studying xenoliths
What layer does the deepest well drilled in Russia drill into?
Continental Crust
What do seismic waves locate?
Boundaries between rock layers and rock layer depths
Define mineral
solid, naturally occuring, inorganic, definite chemical composition, and definite arrangement of atoms
Solid Solution
ions of similar size and charge can substitute for each other
Polymorph
2 minterals with the same composition, but different crystal structure
How are minerals classified?
By chemical composition and crystalline structure
Bonds
Electrical forces of attraction
Where does bonding take place?
Outer Shells
Ionic bond
Attraction of oppositely charged ions
Example of Ionic Bond
NaCl - Halite
Covalent Bond
3,4,or5 electrons tend to share electrons
Example of covalent bond
Diamond
Metallic Bond
Electrons move freely among atoms
Example of Metallic Bond
Copper
Van der Walls Bond
Weak and holds layers of atoms togeter in sheets
Example of Van der Walls Bond
Mica, Talc
What does bonding determine?
Cleavage and fracture
What is the most common Si mineral?
Feldspar
Isolated Tetrahedron
single units bonded to positively charged ions (metals)
Single chains
share 2 corner O ions
Double Chain
share 2 cornor O ions in linear chains that are linked by sharing O-
Sheet Silicates
3 oxygen at the base are shared with other tetrahedron

Ex. - Micas
Framework
4 oxygen shared by adjacent tetrahedron forming a 3D structure.

Ex. Quartz
Chain Silicates
form needles, columns, or fibers
Does Quartz cleave or fracture? Why?
Fracture, oxygen bonds are equally strong in all directions
Does feldspar cleave or fracture? Why?
Cleave, some of the Si is replaced by Al.
Why does quartz have many colors?
Open structure allows to trap stray ions (impurities)
Lithosphere
Solid outer shell consisting of continental/oceanic and upper mantle
Continental Drifect
Idea that continents move freely over earth's surface
Alfred Wegner
Proposed continental drift
Pangea
supercontinent formed
Midocean Ridges
discovery leading to the acceptance of continental drift and plate tectonics
What mineral records paleomagnetism?
Magnetite
What moves in polar wandering?
Continents
Seafloor Spreading
seafloor separates at ocan ridges where upwelling magma creates new crust
Who proposed seafloor spreading?
Harry Hess

Said that continents and oceans move together
What do magnetic anomalies predict?
age of the seafloor and rate of seafloor spreading
Wear is the oldest/yougest seafloor located?
oldest - near edges of continents
yougest - mid ocean ridges
Age of seafloor
180 million
Which ocean moves fastest?
Pacific
What two theories does plate tectonics combine?
seafloor spreading and continental drift
Therman convection cells
driving mechanism for plate tectonics
What do thermal convection cells determine?
Where trenches and spreading ridges are located
Divergent Plate Boundary
plates split and move apart

ex. rift and ?new ocean
Transform PB
plates slide laterally past each other

ex. fault
oceanic-oceanic pb
2 oceanic plates collide and one subducts

ex. deep trenches and volcanic island arc
oceanic-continental pb
oceanic plate subducts under cont. plate

ex. trench and volcanoe on land
cont-cont pb
2 continents collide

ex. creates nonvolcanic mtns
Hot spots
plume of hot molten rock
what do hot spots record?
plate movement
What drives the rock cycle?
plate tectonics
Sedimentary rocks
continent edges
igneous rock
midocean ridges/rifts
metamorphic rock
transform pb (faults)

ex. San Andreas Fautl
Ophiolites
fragment of oceanic crust and upper mantle on land
4 parts of Ophiolites
deep sea sedimentary rocks, oceanic crust, gabbro, and upper mantle
Ocean Crust is composed of
Gabbro and Basalt
Cont. Margin Parts
cont. shelf, cont rise, cont slope
Cont. Shelf
between shoreline and cont. slope
cont. slope
cont. crust changes to oceanic crust
cont. rise
formed by overlapping submarine fans
Turbidity
currents transport and deposit muds/silts on continental slopes and submarine canyons
Parts of passive cont. margin
broad flat cont. shelf, cont slope, cont rise, and vast abyssal plain
Sigsbee Abyssal Plain has
rising salt domes
Gulf of Mex reefs sit upon
rising salt domes
The Atlantic coast slide shows
deep submarine canyons
Parts of an active cont. margin
narrow cont. shelf, cont. slope, ends in a trench
What is associated with active margins?
subduction zones and transform faults
Features found in a rift valley
hydrothermal vents, black smokers, sulfide chimneys, and pillow basalt
2 deep sea sediments
pelagic clay and calcareous/siliceous ooze