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124 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Anterior
Towards the Head
Posterior
Towards the tail
Appendicular
that part of the skeleton appended to the ancestral fish skeleton: shoulders, arms, hips, legs.
Axial
head, vertebrae, ribs, sternum.
Cephalic
entire head, not just the skull.
Skull
head except for the jaws.
Cranial
skull region
Cervical
Neck
Dorsal
Back
Caudal
Tail
Pectoral
Chest
Dermal
of the skin
Distal
farther from the midline of the body
Proximal
closer to the midline of the body
Gastralia
bony, straw like bones which cover the ribs
Anterior
Towards the Head
Posterior
Towards the tail
Appendicular
that part of the skeleton appended to the ancestral fish skeleton: shoulders, arms, hips, legs.
Axial
head, vertebrae, ribs, sternum.
Cephalic
entire head, not just the skull.
Skull
head except for the jaws.
Cranial
skull region
Cervical
Neck
Dorsal
Back
Caudal
Tail
Pectoral
Chest
Dermal
of the skin
Distal
farther from the midline of the body
Proximal
closer to the midline of the body
Gastralia
bony, straw like bones which cover the ribs
Thagomizer
dermal bones, spikes on a stegosaurus' tail
Fenestra
medium to large hole passing through a bone
Foramen
small hole passing through a bone (for nerves or blood vessels)
Fossa
slight depression in surface of a bone
Ossicle
small bone (reptiles- stirrup)
Ossified
well-mineralized (bony)
Nares (External)
Nostrils/Hole for nose.
Hyomandibular
bone on the back of the skull of jawed fishes, becomes columella in amphibians and stapes in reptiles and mammals
Articular
back of lower jaw in reptiles, becomes malleus in mammals
Quadrate
the skull bone articulating with the lower jaw in reptiles; becomes incus in mammals
Top midline of skull front to back
nasal, prefrontal, frontal, parietal
Side of skull front to back
rostral, premaxilla, maxilla, jugal, postorbital, squamosal (temporal bone in humans)
Angular
becomes the tympanic bone in mammal skull, supporting the ear drum
Articular
On back jaw in reptiles; becomes malleus bone in mammalian ear
Shoulder girdle
clavicle (collar bone), Interclavicle (joins the clavicle), and Furcula (fused interclavicle and clavicle) = wishbone in birds
Gastralia
abdominal dermal armor, looks like fine belly "ribs", but are not ribs
Armor
plates and spines in stegosaurs and ankylosaurs
Homodont
all teeth similar shape and function
Differentiated
some teeth have specialized shape and functions
Diastema
distinct gap in tooth row.
Dental battery
many teeth packed close together to make a single tooth row as in ornithopod dinosaurs.
Labyrinthodont
conical teeth with highly infolded enamel, as in labyrinthodont amphibians.
Antorbital fenestra
fenestra located just in front of the orbit (eye socket).
Orbit
eye socket
Lacrimal
small bone just anterior to orbit, with a lacrimal foramen (hole for a tear duct)
Palpebral
wing-like bone shading in the eyes in some dinosaurs, alligators, and crocodiles.
Sclerotic
plates in the reptilian eye that attach muscles to stretch the lens.
Scapula
shoulder blade.
Coracoid
just anterior to the scapula, contacts the upper arm bone; large in reptiles, much smaller in primates
Glenoid fossa
indentation at the scapula-coracoid junction for articulation with the upper arm bone (humerus).
Humerus
Upper arm bone
Radius
Shorter of two lower arm bones.
Ulna
longer of two lower arm bones; includes elbow (olecranon).
Carpals
wrist bones.
Metacarpals
palm of the manus (hand).
Phalanges
finger bones
Ungual
claw-shaped terminal phalanx.
Ilium
dorsalmost of three hip bones.
Pubis
anteroventral hip bone (used for sitting in dinosaurs)
Ischium
posteroventral hip bone
Marsupial bone
pair of bones extending forward from the hip in pouched animals to support the young.
Acetabulum
hip socket for the femur.
Femur
upper hind limb
Tibia
thicker of the two lower leg long bones.
Fibula
thinner of two lower leg long bones. Much reduced in birds (toothpick bone)
Fibula
thinner of two lower leg bones. Much reduced in birds (toothpick bone)
Tarsals
ankle bones
Astragalus
contacts the tibia
Calcaneum
contacts the fibula; heel bone in non-dinosaur and non-pterosaur reptiles in humans.
Metatarsals
bones of the sole of the pes (foot).
Phalanges and unguals
as in the forelimb
Relative geologic time
the temporal order of the fossil record, based on biostratigraphic zones such as taxon range zones, assemblage zones, etc
Absolute geologic time
Age in millions (Ma) or Billions (Ba)of years, based on radiometric dates and less commonly tree growth rings.
Phanerozoic Eon
Name means "visible animals", begins with cambrian period
Paleozoic Era
"Ancient animals", reptiles are the most advanced vertebrates, Terminated by the Permo-Triassic mass extinction, 544-248 Ma
Mesozoic Era
"Middle animals", Dinosaurs, birds, and mammals appear. Terminated by K-T mass extinction, 248-65 Ma
Cenozoic Era
65-0 Ma, age of mammals
Fossils accumulate in...
Far from coastlines--Paleozoic and Mesozoic marine fossils
Modern coastal plains--Cenozoic marine fossils
Near mountains or in high dune sands (Terrestrial and lake fossils)
Triassic First Appearances
mammals,nothosaurs, plesiosaurs, ichthyosaurs, lepidosaurs, rhynchosaurs, trilophosaurs, archosaurs (including crocs and dinosaurs)
Lepidosaurs
expanded temporal openings; skull more flexible
Sphenodontids
lepidosaurs, tuatara; two post orbital fenestrae still present
Squamata
heminipenes (double shafted penis), one pair post orbital-fenestrae (lizards), loss of post-orbital fenestrae (snakes)
Archosauromorph diapsids: synapomorphies
specializations allow for efficient breathing while running, bipedal, parasagittal gait, stiffened torso, muscular diaphram, swallow gravel to help with digestion, nest making with vegetation
Archosauromorph Group: archosauria
Early triassic (recent), facultative parasagittal gait, antorbital fenestra, lateral mandibular fenestra, serrated laterally compressed teeth
"Advanced" Archosauria- Group Crurotarsi
calcaneum is locked to the distal pes (foot), (crocodylotarsi, ornithosuchia)
Group Ornithodira
calcaneum is locked to the fibula (dinosaurs, fabrosaurs, pterosaurs); bipedal runners-advanced metatarsal ankle (AM), metatarsals II-IV long, I-IV bunched (I and V are shortened), long anterior neck vertebrae: s-curve, no dorsal armor plates, pterosaurs and dinosauromorpha
Dinosauromorpha
even better bipedal runners (than ornithodira), shorter arms, open acetabulum (hip socket), narrow metatarsals (I-V), smaller calcaneum-attached to fibula; heel bone, astragulus-attached to tibia, S-shaped neck, dinosauria
Superorder Dinosauria
wide tibia locked to astragulus and calcanuem (double roller joint), long scapula, manus (hand) with digits I-III long (thumb-middle finger); sacrum (hip) with three vertebrae (except herrerasaurus)
Earliest Dinosaurs
Eoraptor, Herrarasaurus, Pisanosaurus
Eoraptor
not yet differentiated into major dinosaur subgroup, raptor with different teeth
Herrerasaurus
theropod-like but only two sacral vertebrae, from Argentina, only 2 sacral vertebrae
Pisanosaurus
early ornithopod
Later Triassic Dinosaurs (ca. 223 Ma)
Saurischia and Ornithischia
Sarischia
coelophysis, procompsognathus, plateosaurus
Ornithischia
Heterodontosaurus
Late Triassic Mass Extinction
Comet impact?, many therapsids went extinct
Early Jurassic dinosaur radiation
Footprints tell the pace of size increase (reach enormous sizes), crocodylomorphs-chased off the dry land; retreat into swamps, rivers, and lagoons; mammals restricted to largely nocturnal habits
How many dinosaur genera were estimated to have existed?
3,400 (400 existed in the late cretaceous)
Only four dinosaurs are known from over 100 specimens
Plateosaurus, Coelophysis, Psittacosaurus, Maiasaura
Where to find dinosaur fossils
Terrestrial sediments (alluvial, riverine, lacustrine)
Marginal marine sediments: (least common)
deltaic, lagoonal, other nearshore sediments, often bored or reworked fragments of skeletons
Joseph Leidy
Deinodon and Trachodon teeth, Montana (1855), 1858: Hadrosaurus foulkii, Haddonfield, NJ., first substantial North American dinosaur skeleton.
Great Dinosaur Bone War
(1870-1890), Marsh and Cope
Robert Bakker
1971-most bipedal dinosaurs were tachymetabolic endotherms(fast metabolism), wrote a book called "Hot Blooded Dinosaurs"
Gigantothermy:inertial endothermy
Very large body size stores sun’s heat during the day, loses heat slowly during the cool night.
Does not work near the north or south pole where night lasts 6 months.
Mulchothermy
For herbivores, bacterial decomposition (mulching) of food releases heat.
Active endothermy
Temporary heat from contraction of red muscle as boas, pythons warming their eggs by shivering.
Indeterminate growth
Growth with slowing but not cessation in adult.
Crocodiles, alligators, snakes.
Some dinosaurs, e.g., Dryosa urus, which may have been endothermic.
Determinate growth
Growth stops in the adult.
Birds, mammals.
Some dinosaurs, e.g., Troodon, Syntarsus, which may have been non-endothermic.
Dinosaur Weight:
For quadrupeds:
Log10 grams = 2.73Log10(H + F) – 1.11 (N/A)
For bipeds:
Log10 grams = 2.73Log10(F) – 0.76 (N/A)
Divide grams by 453.6 to get pounds.
Relative Stride Length
S/L
m/s =
D x square root of [Leg length in meters x 9.8 m/s]
Triassic world: Pangaea (Pangea):
N-S trending continent with high seasonality near the poles, great interior deserts.
Laurasia in the north: North America, Europe, central and NW Asia.
Gondwanaland in the south: South America, Africa, Arabia, Australia, New Guinea, India, Madagascar,
Low diversity, large part of land is uninhabitable; many dinosaurs live on coast
During Triassic- the large continent began to split apart
K-T (Cretaceous-Tertiary) mass extinction
All non-avian dinosaurs; all pterosaurs, plesiosaurs, ichthyosaurs, and mosasaurs.
75% of bird families (all Enantiornithes).
36% of crocodylian families.
27% of turtle families.
Marine fauna: all ammonites, belemnites, rudist bivalves; most planktonic foraminifera.
Tropical marine organisms hit hardest, seasonal climates (in N. and S.) many animals/ dinosaurs survived
Extinction happened because climate was “boring”, geographically the world was also “boring” all Appalachian mountains were flattened, not many mountains, two major land masses (Asia and North America) were connected; low global diversity
Asteroid killed off mainly large dinosaurs, top predators and herbivores; climate changed (light gone for about a year or more), takes off base of food chain