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138 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
absolute age dating
based on relationships between rock units
carbon dating
uses carbon and looks at half life in order find the age of a rock
What is the most accurate type of geologic age dating?
carbon dating
angular unconformity
layered rocks were uplifted
Metamorphic rocks were overlaid by sediments
gap in fossil record or irregular erosion
where do divergent plate boundaries usually occur?
oceanic ridges
where do convergent plate bounaries usually occur?
deep ocean trenches
normal fault
hanging wall block moves down relative to foot wall block
thrust fault
hanging wall block moves up relative to foot wall block
strike slip
displacement is horizontal and parallel to the strike
transform fault
strike slip fault that cuts through the lithosphere
-fracture in the crust where displacement has occurred
What is the cause of earthquakes?
-rapid release of energy by atomic explosions or volcanic eruptions
factors in Earthquake damage
-proximity to epicenter
-ground substrate
-population density
-nature of building construction
-building resonance
what causes Earthquake damage?
-rupture of roads
-building/bridge collapse
-measure of degree of earthquake shaken at a given locale based on amount of damage
estimate of total amount of energy released during an earthquake, based on seimic records
-location on the surface directly above focus
-source of earthquake, or hypocenter
seismic P waves
-primary waves (push-pull)
Seismic S waves
secondary waves (shake, change shape)
-records seismic waves
Why are abyssal planes flat?
-they are flat because of thick accumulations of sediment that have buried an otherwise rugge ocean floor
-turbidity current deposit characterized by graded bedding
-coral island consisting of nearly continuous ring of coral reef surrounding a central lagoon
marine snow
-a continous shower of mostly organic detritus fallng from upper layer of the water column
Ophiolite sequence
deep sea floor spreading
pillow basalts
sheeted dike
layered gabbro
How do pillow basalts form?
-basaltic lava solidifies in an underwater environment and developes a structure that is like a pile of pillows
what are some processes of mass wasting?
-rock avalanche
-surface creep
-transformation of a stable soil into a fluid that is often unable to support buildings or other structures
-slow, downslope flow of water saturated materials
Name the different ways that streams transport things
Why does bedload size decrease downstream
-particles that are too large or too heavy to move by saltation slide to the bottom
Where is flow velocity the greatest?
-at the thalweg
-low, flat portion of a stream valley subject to periodic inundation
point bar
-crescent shaped accumulation of sand and gravel deposited on inside of a meander
cut bar
-on the outside of a meander
-restricts water flow into a river
oxbow lake
-curved lake produced when a stream cuts off a meander
stream capacity
-total amount of sediment a stream can carry
stream competence
-maximum size of sediment a stream can carry
-total amount of water flowing past a certain point
width X depth X velocity
base level
level below which a stream cannot erode
stream problems related to urban development
-excessive sediment runoff
-road runoff
-trash, garbage
-lawn chemicals
-agricultural runoff
-stream pollution
Ways to limit flooding
-better flood management
-space for natural wetlands
-land use planning
-building restrictions
How often do streams flood?
-about once every two and a half years
water from the ground
-geologic unit from which you can withdraw water
-unit through which water does not tend to flow
water table
-surface that slopes
perched water table
-localized zone of saturation above the water table
-result of a natural outflow of groundwater
hydraulic gradient
-water table slope
-amount of porous space
-ease with which fluids can move through
Problems with withdrawing water too fast
-depletion of major freshwater resources
-salt water intrusion
-ground subsidence
-ground collapse
-river of ice, formed by snow that changes into ice
what would be a result of our glaciers melting?
-people would lose a source of clean, freshwater
rock flour
pulverized rock produced by the grinding effect of a glacier
the origin of U shaped valleys
-glacial valleys
the origin of aretes
-two glaciers flowing past each other
the origin of horns
-formed by glcial action
the origin of recessional moraines
-formed as the ice front stagnates during glacial retreat
origin of lateral moraines
-when debris falls to the glacier from valley walls
origin of kettle lakes
-when ice melts and a bowl shaped depression is left
-when sand/gravel is deposited by a stream flowing in a tunnel beneath a glacier
Types of deserts
low latitude deserts
-middle latitude deserts
What makes it a desert?
-extreme temperatures
-trees that don't grow because of absence of snow
Geologic processes in deserts
-mass wasting
-chemical weathering
-physical weathering
-a cobble or pebble polished and shaped by sandblasting effect of the wind
alluvial fan
-a fan shaped deposit of sediment formed when a stream slope is abruptly reduced
-apron of sediment along a mountain front created by the coalesence in a stream channel
playa lake
-temporary lake in a playa
-when arid lands are turned into deserts
causes of desertification
-Some desertification areas
-Middle East
beach drift
-transport of sediment in a zigzag pattern along a beach, caused by uprush of water
What is the main factor that controls tides?
-the moon
Spring Tide
-when the Earth-Moon-Sun- system is aligned
Neap Tide
-when the forces of the moon and sun act on Earth at right angles
-build parallel to the shoreline, designed to armor the coast and defend property from waves
-confine the flow of water, narrow it
-barrier built at a right angle, traps sand moving parallel to the shore
Advantages and disadvantages of beach nourishment
advantages: improves storm protection, doesn't require hard stabalization, beach quality is improved
disadvantages: not permanent, replacement sand will eventually be removed, very expensive, unwanted environmental effects
shoreline erosion
east coast- tectonically quiet, narrowing of beaches, flow to coast is interrupted by dams, development is a problem
west coast-storms strike coast, erode dunes, carry sand from beaches
Name the layers of the Earth, from inside to outside
4. crust
Compare continental and oceanic crust
- continental crust is older
- continental is made of granite, oceanic of basalt
- continentel has a higher elevation
-contintental crust is thicker
Describe Earth's crust
- it is the thin, rocky, outer layer
-it is divided into oceanic and continental crust
What is a mineral?
-a naturally occuring, inorganic solid, with a specific composition and definite internal arragement of atoms
How do minerals form?
-evaporating from a solution
-solidifying from a cooling melt
-alteration by weathering process
-alteration within the Earth's surface
Name some common minerals
-orthoclase, plagioclase, augite, hornblend
Igneous rocks
-rocks that form from solidifying from a cooling melt
on the earth's surface
in the Earth
Name the different types of Igneous rocks and give an example for each
Felsic- granite
Mafic- diorite
intermediate- gabbro
Metamorphic Rocks
-alteration of pre-existing rocks in a solid state through application of heat and pressure
Examples of metamorhpic rocks
slate, quartzite, schist
Sedimentary rocks
-deposition of weathered materials of other rocks
Examples of Sedimentary rocks
chalk, limestone, sandstone, clay, shale
Divergent plate boundaries
-two plates move apart (mid atlantic ridge)
Convergent plate boundaries
-two plates moving together (peru-chili trench)
Transform boundaries
-two plates grinding past each other (San Andreas Fault)
Name the Geologic Eons
What age are we living in today?
Post Cambrian
What is the approxomite age of the Earth?
4.6 billion years old
Compare the ages of the Oceanic and Continental crust and explain why they are this way
age of Oceanic Crust: 180 million years old
age of contintental crust: 4.4 billion years old
reason: sea floor spreading, new lithosphere is constantly being made and the old is beign destroyed
Name the three types of Volcancos
shield- mafic (Hawaii)
Strato- intermediate (Mt. St. Helens)
Cinder- Felsic (Arizona)
-disintegration of rock at the Earth's surface by physical or chemical processes
Types of physical weathering
-frost wedging
-thermal expansion
-pressure release jointing
Types of Chemical weathering
-mud squeezes in on the rock and shrinks it laterally
graded bedding
-when it goes from coarse to fine grains
wave ripple marks
current ripple marks
cross beds
-tell you the current direction, wind blown deposition
-layering of sediment
-a hill of sand
What type of landscape is coal found in?
warm, tropical
what type of landscape is limestone found in?
What is the wisconsin state fossil?
state of falt and planar surfaces, bent or curved by deformation
rock breaks
rock doesn't break
normal fault
reverse fault
ductile deformation
horizontal line on a planar surface
goes down, at a right angle to the strike
oldest strata on the outside
oldest strata on the inside
rocks that might have been flatlined get pushed back
double plunging
plunges in two directions
mass wasting
downslope of Earth's materials due to gravity
Motions of mass wasting
falling, flowing, sliding
Factors in Mass wasting
-undercutting by waves
-angle of repose
-material of ground
What types of mass wasting produce the most damage?
surface creep and solifluction