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70 Cards in this Set

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Plumes
Heat welling up from the deep mantle which pushes against the lithosphere.
Aulacogen
failed rift
Hawaiin-Emperor chain
kinked seamount chains
Kilauea
a huge caldera on the flanks of Mauna Lao
caldera
collapsed volcano
Alkaline Basalt
tend to fill teh caldera during the dying stages of an Hawaiian volcano and may be helping the magma to punch through the lithosphere to form the next volcano
lava fountains
when lava rises sufficiently fast that the gases dissolve into it and do not have enough time to escape before it reaches the surface so that frothing and eruption occur simulataneously.
lava flows
the fountains in turn feed lava streams and flows that are fast-moving because of the low viscosity of basalt
Lava tubes
often tunnes drain into lava tubes and cool to form blockey or ropey surface proteins
Blocky lava
aka AA
-appears rubbly and forms when the solidified surface is broken up by the lava beneath
Chimney
caused by freezing of lava against tree trunks which later rot away may leave hollow lava chimney
spatter cones
blocky flows can be explosive and may hurl blobs of lava into the air and pile up
volcanic bombs
resemble tear-drops or hiar or cow dung
ropey lava
when lava flows like honey rippling at the surface to produce rope-like folds which cool to form..
Pahoehoe
another name for ropey lava
atoll
a coral island consisting of a reef surrounding a lagoon
seamount
a submarine mountain rising above the deep-sea floor
Island Park caldera
magma exploted it 1.3 million years ago
Yellowstone caldera
magma exploded 600,000 years ago to create it
rhyolite
a very acid volcanic rock that is the lava form of granite
ash flow
bulging beyond capacity the ground above teh magma chamber cracks, releases pressure and triggering a catastrophic eruption
geysers
a spring that throws forth intermittent jets of heated water and steam
sinter
aka Geyserite
-silica deposits left behind as the mineral-charged water cools at the foot of the geyser
Hot spots
along wider cracks, subterranean pools may absorb the boiling water and then it forms
mudpots
when only a trickle of water reaches the surface, strong acids turn the soil into them
steam vents
aka Fumaroles
-where if the water boils off below the water can escape
Transform fault
where two plates struggle to slide past each other
stress
pressure
deform
when strains builds up in the rocks on either side of the fault and slowly bend
strike-slip fault
the movement occurs sideways along the horizontal trace or strike of the fault
The best known transform faults
-San Andreas
-Queen Charlotte(British Col.
-Levant(beneath Dead Sea)
-Anatolian (Turkey)
Alpine(South Island)
Divergent Bends
where the crust may be streatched until it breaks and collapses
Pull-apart basin
-long narrow depressions that may collect sediment or become filled with water
Convergent bends
Where the fault curves in other directions plate motion jams the blocks of crust together
Transverse ridges
folded mountains, across the trace of the fault
Motague Fault
slices through Guatamala for almost 150 miles and forms the boudanry between the North American and Caribean plates
Levant Fault
in the middle east has had earthquake activity for at least 3000 years
Dead Sea
between Jordan and the West Bank, as a pull-apart basin produced in a region of tension between two over-lapping strike-slip faults that seperate the Arabian and African plates
Left-lateral
aka sinistral
-the far side of each fault moves to the left
Dead Sea transform
aka Levant Fault
an extension of Africa's rift system
Lake Lisan
caused by a rise in the world sea level flooded the transform to form a long lake, whcih dried up when the sea receded to leave the Sea of Galilee, the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba
salt pillars
evaporations near the shores produce
Potash
left over from the evaporated water from the dead sea.
potassium or a potassium compound especially as used in agriculture or industry
North Anatolian Fault
in Turkey
-forms the boundary of the Anatolian plate
Right lateral
dextral
-the far side of the fault moves to the right
Minas faulty
-Canadian Fault slices through the center of Nova scotia and represents a right-lateral transform fault that was active during the assembly of Pangaea
Great Glen fault
over the Atlantic Ocean and also the Loch Ness monster can be found
Cabot Fault
where the Atlantic Ocean split the old fault broke in two so that the continuation of the Great Glen Fault now lies more than 3000 miles away on the Cabot Fault
Fort Tejon earthquake
Hlaf of voer 70-foot offsets on the streams occurred during this 1857 Earthquake
San Francisco earthquake
a magnitude of 8.3
sustained over a half billion dollars in damage and lost around 700 lives
Primary
aka P-waves
-speeds along at 12,000 to 19,000 mph arrive first at the surface
-compressed waves like sound alternately pushing and pulling surface structures in the direction of wave travel
Seismometer
measuring the actual movements of the ground
Secondary
S-waves
-slower moving at 7000 to 10,000 mph
-these waves are shearer and oscillate and heave the ground up and down or sideways but cannot move through water
Surface waves
produce low-frequency vibrations that roll the ground like ocean waves or whip it sideways
-since these travel slowly adn take longer to diminish, they can sway buildings at great distances from the epicenter or the point on the earth's surface nearst the focus
fault creep
unlikely to experience earthquakes because stresses are releaved as fast as tehy build up.
Richter scale
The scale is a logarithmic on some that each unit increase is 10 times the seismic wave by the seismograph
Aftershocks
small tremors that follow the main movement
sesimic gap
the locked portion of a fault where the risk of damaging earthquake activity is greatest
liquifaction
buildings build on landfills didn't hold up well during the earthquake
Precursors
small tremors knows as foreshocks that precede the main movement
Creepmeters
essentially wires stretched across the fault to register any horizontal movement
Scintillation
detect even the slightest ground tremors and can reveal changes in seismic-wave velocity, a porecusor of shocks
Tiltmeters
predict volcanic eruptions, detect changes in land slope by the rising and falling of water levels in two containers
Laser-ranging instuments
measure round-trip travel time of a light pulse and thus the precise distance between twho points, indicating horizontal movement across the fault
ARIES
uses quasar signals from outside our galaxy as reference point to monitor ground movement
LAGEOS
measures plate movement by bouncing laser beams between Earth Stations and an orbiting satellite.
Strainmeters
measures expansion and contraction of crustal rock, indicating strain accumulation or release
Convergent plates
-aka Destructive plate
-when two plates approach each other collisions result.
Subduction Zones
marked by deep ocean trench
suture
continents meet head on, melding together