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113 Cards in this Set

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lava
molten rock that has extruded onto the earth's surface
lava flows
moving masses of molten lava
viscosity
resistance to flow
basaltic lava flow
mafic lava that has low viscosity (fast moving)
lava tube
an insulated tunnel like conduit within a flow through which lava moves
flows with warm pasty surfaces wrinkle into smooth glassy rope like ridges
pahoehoe (pa-hoy-hoy)
jumble of sharp angular fragments creating a rubbly flow
a'a'
fracturing that creates hexagonal columns
columnar jointing
andesitic lava flows
medium viscosity lava flow, it forms a mound and then slides down the sides /\
rhyolitic lava flows
Most viscous (slowest) flow, accumlates into a dome like mass/ lava dome
lava that accumulates in to a dome like mass
lava dome
volcanic ash is composed of ____
tiny glass shards
all fragmental material erupted from a volcano
pyroclastic debris
finest pyroclastic debris, powered sized glass shards
lapilli
apple to refrigerator sized pieces of pyroclastic debris
blocks (or) bombs
unconsolidated deposits of pyroclastic grains (regardless of size)
tephra
ash or ash mixed with lapilli, when lithified becomes
tuff
avalanches of hot ash and lapilli that rush down the side of a volcano
pyroclastic flow/ nuee ardente("glowing cloud")
a sheet of tuff formed from a pyroclastic flow
ignimbrite
fluid fast moving volcanic debris flows - ash and water
lahar
composed of water, CO2, SO2, and hydrogen sulfide
volcanic gas
cone shaped piles of tephra
cinder cones
"composite volcanoes", large and cones shaped and consist of alternating layers of lava and tephra
Stratavolcanoes
eruptions that produces lava flows
effusive eruptions
eruptions that produce clouds and avalanches of pyroclastic debris
explosive/ pyroclastic eruption
eruption involving water and magma
phreatomagmatic eruption
low viscosity lava spread over large areas
flood basalts
time between eruptions
recurrence interval
volcanoes that are erupting or likely to erupt soon
active volcanoes
volcanoes that have not erupted in hundreds to thousands of years
dormant volcanoes
volcanoes that were active in the past but have stopped forever
extinct volcanoes
a map that delineates areas that lie in the path of potential lava flows, lahars, debris flows or pyroclastic flows
volcanic danger assessment map
earthquake activity
seismicity
a fracture on which sliding occurs
fault
the place in the earth where rock ruptures and slips
hypocenter/focus
the point on the surface of the earth that lies directly above the hypocenter
epicenter
hanging wall block goes down relative to the footwall due to crustal stretching
Normal fault
hanging wall slips diagonally
Oblique slip fault
hanging wall goes up due to crustal shortening
thrust fault
no vertical motion, sideways motion
strike-slip fault
the amount of slip on a fault
displacement
the intersection between a fault and the ground surface
fault trace/ fault line
the small step that is created when a normal fault is created
fault scarp
a change in the shape of an object that disappears when stress is removed is called...
elastic strain
the start stop movement on a fault
stick-slip behavior
smaller earthquakes that precede a major earthquake
foreshocks
smaller earthquakes that follow a major earthquake
aftershocks
the instant a earthquake appears at a seismograph station
arrival time
the lines that record an earthquake
seismogram
the instrument that records an earthquake
seismograph
the waves that arrive first
P waves
the waves that arrive second
S waves
the waves that arrive last
surface waves/ rayleigh and Love waves (r and l waves)
first scale to characterize an earthquake. described by roman numerals
Mercalli intensity scale
the number that indicates the earthquakes relative size as determined by measuring the maximum amplitude of ground motion recorded by a seismograph
magnitude
earthquake magnitude is measured by this scale
Richter scale
calculates the EXACT magnitude of an earthquake
moment magnitude
area where earthquakes occur
seismic belts
earthquakes that occur on the interior of plates
intraplate earthquakes
seismic events that are caused by the actions of people
induced seismicity
waves that move the ground upwards
P waves
waves that move the ground side to side
S waves
waves that makes the ground move like a snake
L(ove) waves
waves that move the ground like waves
R(ayleigh) waves
the movement of water within a bay or lake caused by an earthquake
seiche
the abrupt loss of stregth of a wet sediment
liquefaction
average time between successive events (earthquakes)
recurrence interval
where a know active fault has not slipped for a long time
seismic gap
designing buildings that can withstand earthquakes
earthquake engineerings
determine where land is stable and where it might collapse
earthquake zoning
boundary between the rock through which a wave has passed and the rock through which it has not yet passed
wave front
changing position of an imaginary point on wave front as the front as the front moves through rock
seismic ray
time it takes for a wave to travel from the focus to a seismograph
travel time
between 100 and 200 km deep in the mantle beneath the oceanic lthosphere seismic velocities are slower than the lithospheric mantle
low velocity zone
when the seismic ray is disjointed as it moves through different layers
seismic velocity discontinuities
3d image of seismic wave velocities within the earth
seismic tomography
rocks squash, stretch, bend and break
deformation
cracks
joints
fractures on which one body of rock slides past another
faults
bends or wrinkles
folds
layering resulting from alignment of mineral grains or the creation of compositional bands
foliation
mountain belts
orogens
mountain building event
orogeny
material breaks into 2 ore more pieces
brittle deformation
material changes shape without breaking
ductile deformation
when a rock is pulled apart
tension
one side of a rock is moved sideways past the other side
shear stress
special stress condition in which the same push acts on all sides of an object
pressure
the rock above the fault plane
hanging wall block
rock below the fault plane
footwall block
sliding occurs up or down the slop of the fault
dip-slip fualts
one block slides past another
strike slip faults
sliding occurs diagonally on the fault plane
oblique-slip faults
polished fault surfaces
slickenslides
linear grooves on fault surfaces
slip lineations
faults in which moment occured ductilely
shear zones
the portion of the fold where curvature is greatest
hinge
sides of the fold that show less curvature
limbs
folds that an arch like shape in which the limbs dip away from the hinge
anticlines
folds with a trough like shape in which the limbs dip toward the hing
synclines
the shape of a carpet draped over a stairstep
monocline
layering created by the alignment of deformed and or reoriented grains
tectonic foliation
condition when the buoyancy force pushing lithopshere up equals the graviational force pulling lithosphere down
isostacy/ isostatic equilibrium
asymmetric ridge
cuesta
when geds dip steeply and forma narrow more symmetrical ridge
hogback
mountains collapsing because of own weight
orogenic collapse
blocks that attach to a convergent margin
exotic terranes
orogens that grow laterally by the attachment of exotic terranes
accretionary orogens
when the continent is pushed tightly against a subduction zone ___ this is generated
fold-thrust belt
crust that has not been affected by orogeny for at least 2 billion years
craton
where precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks crop out of the ground
shields
relatively thing layer of sediment covers the precambrian rocks
cratonic platform
the broad vertical movement that grenerate huge but gentle mid continent domes and basins
epeirogeny