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30 Cards in this Set

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Size of a seismic wave is defined as half the vertical distance between its trough and peak as measured by a seismometer
Amplitude
seismic waves that travel through the interior of the earth
Body Waves
a large ocean wave commonly generated by movement of the seafloor during a subduction zone earthquake
Tsunami
Seismic waves that travel along earth's outer edges rather than through its interior
Surface waves
an instrument that measures ground motions caused by passing seismic waves
Seismometer
the study of earthquakes, and of the structure of the earth, by means of both natural and artificially generated seismic waves
seismology
a record of ground motion measured by a seismometer
seismogram
a general term for elastic waves (vibrations) in earth, typically produced by earthquakes
seismic waves
a segment of a fault that has not ruptured recently relative to neighboring segments
seismic gap
seismic body waves that vibrate rock perpendicular to the direction of wave movement- that is up and down or side to side as in waves on a shaken rope. about half as fast as P waves and do not travel through liquids or through the outer core of earth
S-waves
represents the size of an earthquake based on the strongest seismic wave amplitude recorded at a standard distance of 100 km from the epicenter with a standard torsion seismograph
Richter Magnitude Scale
average time interval between characteristic earthquakes as a fault
Recurrence interval
A physical or seismic phenomena that may indicate a pending earthquake
precursor
The (blank) of a seismic wave is the interval of time required for one complete peak to peak vibration to pass by a seismometer
Period
Seismic body waves that alternatively push and pull (that is, compress and expand) rocks along their direction of travel. They are the fastest of the seismic waves
P (primary Waves)
a numerical scale of the amount of energy released by an earthquake. It is calculated from the total area of the fault that ruptures, how far the rocks move along the fault during the earthquake, and the strength of the rock that ruptures, how far the rocks move along the fault during the earthquake, and the strength of the rock that ruptures
moment magnitude
ranks earthquake intensities on a 12-point scale, expressed as roman numerals from I to XII
Modified Mercalli Scale
a measure of the strength of an earthquake as determined by seismograph observations
magnitude
the change of a water-saturated and unconsolidated surface material, such as soil, from a solid to a liquid state when internal strength is lost - typically caused by earthquake shaking
liquefaction
one that occurs within a tectonic plate rather than at a plate boundary
intraplate earthquake
a measure of the amount of shaking and other effects by an earthquake at a particular location. It is measured in terms of its effects on people and structures
intensity
the number of vibrations that a seismic wave completes in a given period of time; it is commonly measured in cycles per second
frequency
the point underground where rock first ruptures to generate an earthquake
focus
a linear feature that marks the intersection of a fault plane within the ground surface
fault trace
the slow gradual movement along a fault that doesn't cause significant earthquakes
fault creep
the point on the earth's surface that is directly above the focus of an earthquake
epicenter
the change in shape or size of a material caused by stress long a fault that can be reversed when stress is released
elastic strain
states that movement along a fault is the result of an abrupt release of a progressively increasing elastic strain between the rock masses on either side of the fault
elastic rebound theory
the repeated generation of earthquakes by the build up and release of elastic strain on a fault
earthquake cycle
a vibration in the earth caused by the release of elastic strain on a fault
earthquake