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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Hydrological cycle
Powered by energy from sun
Water soaks into the ground slowly moving downward, finally seeping into lakes, streams, and oceans
Infiltration
Surplus flows from surface
Runoff
Plants give off water to atmosphere
Transpiration
Evaporation and transpiration
Evapotranspiration
Most important agent sculpturing Earth's land surface
Water
Land that contributes water to river system
Drainage basin
Drainage basin of one stream separated from another. Imaginary line
Divide
3 Roles of Rivers and Streams
1. Erode channels in which they flow
2. Transport sediments provided by weathering and slope processes
3. Produce wide variety of erosional and depositional land forms
3 River system parts
1. Zone of erosion
2. Zone of sediment transport
3. Zone of sediment deposition
Transports sediments between zone of erosion and deposition
Trunk stream
Water flows in 2 ways
1. Laminar flow
2. Turbulent flow
Stream Velocity determined by
1. Gradient
2. Shape, size, roughness of channel
3. Discharge
Volume of water flowing past a certain point in a given unit of time
Discharge
Discharge=
width x depth x velocity
m x m x m/s=
m^3/s
Streams that exhibit flow only during wet periods
Intermittent
Streams that exhibit flow in arid climates, only after heavy trainstorm
Ephemeral
Most important erosional agent
Streams
Stream load consists of material
1. in solution -disolved load
2. in suspension
3. sliding or rolling along the bottom- bed load
Max size of particles capable of being transported
Competence
Max load a stream can carry
Capacity
Material deposited by a stream
Alluvium
Streams actively cutting into solid rock
Bedrock channels
Bed and banks composed maily of unconsolidated sediment
Alluvial channel
Factors affecting alluvial stream shape
1. size of sedimet
2. channel gradient
3. discharge
2 types of alluvial streams
1. meandering
2. braided
Lower limit to how deep a stream can erode
base level
2 types of base levels
1. ultimate base level
2. temp/local base level
Sides of valleys shaped by
1. weathering
2. overland flows
3. mass wasting
2 types of stream valleys
1. narrow V valley
2. wide valleys with flat floors
Valley deepening caused by
1. bedload sliding and rolling
2. hydraulic power of fast moving water
sand and gravel deposits
bars
depositional land forms with longer life spans
deltas
natural levees
alluvial fans
tributary stream that can't enter until it breaches levee
yazoo tributary
area behind levve that is poorly drained
backswamps
most common drainge patter
dendritic
most common and most destructive of all geologic hazards
floods
Types of floods
1. regional
2. flash floods
3. ice jams
4. dam failure
Flood control
1. artifical levees
2. building of flood control dams
3. river channelization
4. artificial cut offs
5. nonstructural