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148 Cards in this Set

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What is the "Big Bang" theory?
All mass and energy at a single point exploded and has been expanding ever since. Collapse resulted in temp, density, and rate of rotation
What is the "Doppler Effect"?
Allows us to detect star motion- transmitted in the form of waves, sounds like a moving train (higher pitch approaching, lower pitch departing)
What is "The Red Shift"?
How far away a distant object is.
The Expanding Universe
Light from galaxies was seen to be 'red shifted', Hubble recognized this.
What is "Necleosynthesis"?
(Formation of elements) --> we are all made of stardust. Stars are 'element factories' and the BIG BANG formed lighter elements.
Formation of the Solar System
Nebular Theory, heavier elements produced, the ball at the center grows dense and hot, fusion reactions begin= the Sun is born. Irregularly shaped proto-Earth develops- interior heat and softens, gravity shapes Earth into a sphere. A small planetoid collides with the Earth, debris form a ring around the Earth and forms the Moon.
What is "The Big Crunch"?
Earth collapsing
Estimate age of the Universe
14 billion years old
What theory supports expansion theory?
The Doppler Effect
What are "planetismals"?
accumulate into larger masses, interior of the Earth heats up, and becomes soft, gravity shapes the Earth into a sphere, a small planetoid collides with the Earth, debris form a ring around the Earth and forms the Moon.
Why did Pluto drop out?
Pluto is an icy planet that forms the kulper belt with out planets, Pluto is a dwarf planet.
Terrestial Plants
Small, dense, rocky planets- Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars (4 most inner planets)
Jovian Planets
Large, low density, Gas-giant planets- Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune (4 most outer planets)
The Asteroid Belt
Lies between Mars and Jupiter
What are stars?
Immense balls of incandescent gas, gravity bounds stars together into vast galaxies, our Sun is one of 300 billion stars in the Milky Way Galaxy
Formation of the Earth
The atmosphere develops from volcanic gases. When the Earth becomes cool enough: Moisture condenses and accumulates, the oceans are born.
What are the components of planet Earth?
-An Atmosphere (gaseous envelope)
-A hydrosphere (surface and near-surface water, "Blue Planet")
-A lithosphere (outer, rigid, shell of the Earth")
-Earth's interior
-A powerful magnetic field
Earth's magnetic field
Earth has a dipolar magnetic field, lines flow from N to S, extend into space, and weaken with distance from Earth, create a shell around the Earth= magnetosphere.
Magnetosphere
Shell around the Earth, deflects solar winds, near the earth the stronger magnetic field forms the Van Allen belts, which arrest deadly cosmic radiation.
Aurorae
Some ions escape Van Allen belts, pulled to the magnetic poles the ions generate light when they interact with atmospheric gases
Aurora borealis
Northern Lights
Aurora australis
Souther Lights
The Atmosphere
Only Earth has an atmosphere, densest at sea level and thins upwards, mostly nitrogen.
Elemental Composition of the Earth
4 Elements make up 90% of the Earth.
-Iron
-Oxygen
-Silicon
-Magnesium
Earth's Layers
We live on the thin outer layer of Earth. The Earth has three layers- the crust, the mantle, and the core (inner and outer)
How do we know the Earth has layers?
Earthquakes= seismic waves pass through Earth
Earth's Crust
Continental and Oceanic, "outermost" skin of Earth w variable thickness
-thickest under mountain ranges, thinnest under mid-ocean ridges.
The "Moho"
Separates the crust form the upper mantle
Earth's Mantle
Upper and Lower, composition is the ultramafic rock (mostly Fe, Mg, Ca, Si, O) hot mantle rises, cold mantle sinks. Three subdivisions: Upper, transitional, and lower
Earth's Core
Outer (liquid) and Inner (Solid) Flow in the outer core generates Earth's magnetic field
Compositional Layers
-Crust (continental, granitic)
-Mantle (Ultramafic rock)
Mechanical Layers
-Lithosphere
-Asthenosphere
Lithosphere
-crust and upper mantle
-outermost
-non-flowing
-rigid material that moves as tectonic plates
Asthenosphere
-upper mantle below lithosphere
-shallow under oceans, deep under continents
-flow as a soft solid
Plate Tectonics
-proposed by German Alfred Wegener
-noted continents seem to fit together and have simply drifted from each other
Paleoclimatic Evidence
-placing Pangea over the Permian South Pole
-predicted tropical coals, reefs, deserts, salt-deposits
-fossil evidence
-similar rock types
-"bar magnet" intersects Earth's surface
Earth's Magnetic Field
Two components= declination, inclination
-Acts like a giant bar magnet
-Some rocks align to the magnetic field which permits rocks to preserve information
Declination
Difference between magnetic North and geographic (true) North
-changes where you are on Earth
Inclination
Tilt of a compass needle from the Horizon
How do we preserve magnetic signature in rocks?
Above 330-550 degrees C
-Thermal energy of atoms high
-Magnetic dipoles randomly oriented
-No magnetic signature
Below 350-550 degree C
-Thermal energy slows atoms
-Dipoles align with Earth's field
-Material permanently magnetized
Compositional Layers
-Crust (continental, granitic)
-Mantle (Ultramafic rock)
Mechanical Layers
-Lithosphere
-Asthenosphere
Lithosphere
-crust and upper mantle
-outermost
-non-flowing
-rigid material that moves as tectonic plates
Asthenosphere
-upper mantle below lithosphere
-shallow under oceans, deep under continents
-flow as a soft solid
Plate Tectonics
-proposed by German Alfred Wegener
-noted continents seem to fit together and have simply drifted from each other
Paleoclimatic Evidence
-placing Pangea over the Permian South Pole
-predicted tropical coals, reefs, deserts, salt-deposits
-fossil evidence
-similar rock types
-"bar magnet" intersects Earth's surface
Earth's Magnetic Field
Two components= declination, inclination
-Acts like a giant bar magnet
-Some rocks align to the magnetic field which permits rocks to preserve information
Declination
Difference between magnetic North and geographic (true) North
-changes where you are on Earth
Inclination
Tilt of a compass needle from the Horizon
How do we preserve magnetic signature in rocks?
Above 330-550 degrees C
-Thermal energy of atoms high
-Magnetic dipoles randomly oriented
-No magnetic signature
Below 350-550 degree C
-Thermal energy slows atoms
-Dipoles align with Earth's field
-Material permanently magnetized
Paleomagnetism
Study of fossil magnetism
-ancient rocks reveal latitude/longitude
"Polar Wander"
paleomagnetism from ancient lavas didn't align with the present magnetic field
-Rocks of different ages registered different "paleopoles"
-constructed for each continent
-tracks the apparent changes of the position of the Earth's magnetic poles over time
-STRONG evidence for continently drift
Paleopoles
the supposed positions of the Earth's magnetic poles over time
The discovery of sea-floor spreading
During WWII military needs boosted ocean floor exploration
-mid-ocean ridges, deep-ocean trenches were discovered
Mid-Ocean Ridges
Mountain ranges that run through every ocean basin
Deep-Ocean Trenches
occur very near the continents, most line the pacific ocean, some deep enough to swallow mount everest!
Marine Magnet Anomalies
instrument that measures the strength of the Earth's magnetic field recorded in rocks
Magnet Anomaly
difference between the expected strength of the magnetic field and the actual magnetic field
Positive Magnetic Anomalies
strength of measure magnetic field is stronger
Negative Magnetic Anomalies
strength of measured magnetic field is weaker
Normal Polarity
North geographic pole and north pole coincide
Positive Marine Magnetic Anomaly
occurs where ocean floor rocks formed during a time when the Earth's magnetic field displayed normal polarity
Negative Marine Magnetic Anomaly
occurs where the ocean floor rocks record reverse polarity
Sea Floor Spreading
-explains the stripes
-parallel to mid-ocean ridges
Divergent Plate Boundaries
Tectonic plates move apart
-lithosphere thickens away from the ridge
Convergent Plate Boundaries
plates move together
Transform Plate Boundaries
Tectonic plates slide sideways past each other
Plate Tectonics
the KEY to understand geology
Mineral
"Building blocks" of rocks
-naturally occurring
-solid
-definite chemical composition
-ordered atomic arrangement
mostly inorganic
Crystalline structure
-atoms in a mineral are specifically ordered
Glass
a solid with disordered atoms
Color
the diagnostic for some minerals
Streak
mineral color crushed on an unglazed porcelain plate
Luster
the way a mineral surface scatters light--> metallic, or non metallic
Hardness
scratching resistance of a mineral
Specific Gravity
related to density, how much it weights- high or low
Cleavage
tendency to break along planes of weakness
Fracture
minerals lack planes of lattice weakness, equal strength of molecular bonds in all directions
Mineral Compositions
Oxygen and Silicon are the most common, only about 50 minerals are abundant
Mineral Classes
Classified based upon the dominant anion silicate minerals- silicate minerals dominate Earth's crust
Independent Tetrahedra
share no oxygens- linked by cations
Single Chain Tetrahedras
single-chain structures bonded with Fe and Mg
Sheet Silicas
two dimensional sheets of linked tetrahedra, one directions of perfect cleavage
Framework silicas
all four oxygen atoms in the silica tetrahedra are shared
Rocks
Earth materials made form minerals, coherent, naturally occurring solid, consisting of an aggregate of Minerals or a mass of glass
Igneous Rocks
form from the solidification of molten rock (magma)
Sedimentary Rocks
form in two main ways
1) cementing together of grains broken off pre-existing rocks
2) precipitation of mineral crystals out of water solutions
Metamorphic Rocks
form when preexisting rocks change character due to a change in pressure and temperature conditions and or/ applied forces (stretching, squashing)
Igneous Rocks
Solidified molten rock that freezes at high temperatures
Magma
subsurface melt
Lava
melts at the surface
Intrusive Igneous Rocks
cool slowly underground
Extrusive Igneous Rocks
cool quickly at the surface
What is magma made of?
Three components: solid, liquid, gas
Magma Compositions
4 types based on silica percentage-
-Felsic
-Intermediate
-Mafic
-Ultramafic
Phaneritic
Coarsely crystalline
Aphantic
Finely crystalline
Almost all tectonic plate boundaries can be recognized by...
The presence of earthquake belts along them
The apparent polar-wander paths for continents that were connected over some span of geologic history will likely ____________ concerning the positions of the ancient magnetic pole.
Agree
The youngest sea floor occurs...
Along mid-ocean ridges
Sea-floor spreading is driven by volcanic activity...
Along mid-ocean ridges
At a convergent plate boundary, two opposed plates...
Move toward each other
Unlike the lithosphere, the asthenosphere
Is relatively weak and flows readily
Mid-ocean ridges are:
Divergent plate boundaries
The stream of charged particles given off by the Sun, which prevented the accumulation of hydrogen and helium during the formation of the terrestrial planets, is called...
Solar Wind
In the Heliocentric model...
The Earth orbits around the Sun
Aside form Earth, the terrestrial plants are...
Mars, Mercury, and Venus
With increasing altitude, the concentration of gases in our atmosphere...
Becomes less dense
The shape of the Earth's magnetic field is approximately that of a...
Dipole
By ,ass, the four most abundant elements in the earth are...
Iron, Oxygen, Silicon, Magnesium
Of the three primary chemical layers of the Earth (Crust, Mantle, Core), which is the densest layer?
Core
Among the choices below, the best estimate of the age of the Universe is...
14 billion years old
Strong evidence that the Universe is expanding comes from the fact that the light emitted from distant galaxies appears to be:
Red-shifted
Within the sea floor, the rate of heat flow is greatest...
Along the mid-ocean ridges
Diamond and graphite are both polymorphs of pure carbon. T or F
True
In silicate minerals, silicon tetrahedra might be coordinated to form...
ALL OF THE ABOVE- long chains, 3-dimensional framework, 2-dimensional sheets
The most abundant minerals belong to a chemical group named...
Silicates
Two distinct minerals have may have the same chemical formula. T or F
True
Synthetically made (mad made) glass and natural quartz crystals both exhibit a fracture pattern called...
Conchoidal
Which of the following is NOT a mineral?
A and B are NOT, but C is...
Cleavage in minerals refer to...
A tendency to break along planes of weakness
If a body of magma is subjected to fractional crystallization, the rock that results is expected to be...
More mafic than the magma
The difference between lava and magma is that...
Magma is found beneath the Earth's surface, whereas lava has reached the surface
The geoterm is the rate of change of...
Temperature with depth in Earth's interior
When magma crystallizes _______ are formed...
Intrusive igneous rocks
Geologically, melts are equivalent to both...
Lavas and magmas
A dike is...
A sheet-like intrusion that cuts across surrounding layers of rock
As compared to coarse-grained igneous rocks, all fine-grained igneous rocks...
Cool and solidify more quickly
A blob-like igneous rock body found beneath the surface of the Earth is called a...
Pluton
When rock is partially melted, the chemistry of the melt is...
More mafic than the original chemistry of the rock that was partially melted
The silica tetrahedron that forms the backbone of all silicate minerals is composed of silicon and what other element?
Oxygen
The color of a mineral in powdered form is termed...
Streak
With regard to minerals, hardness refers to...
An ability to being scratched by other substances
A blob-like igneous rock body found beneath the surface of the Earth is called a...
Pluton
When rock is partially melted, the chemistry of the melt is...
More mafic than the original chemistry of the rock that was partially melted
The silica tetrahedron that forms the backbone of all silicate minerals is composed of silicon and what other element?
Oxygen
The color of a mineral in powdered form is termed...
Streak
With regard to minerals, hardness refers to...
An ability to being scratched by other substances
A blob-like igneous rock body found beneath the surface of the Earth is called a...
Pluton
When rock is partially melted, the chemistry of the melt is...
More mafic than the original chemistry of the rock that was partially melted
The silica tetrahedron that forms the backbone of all silicate minerals is composed of silicon and what other element?
Oxygen
The color of a mineral in powdered form is termed...
Streak
With regard to minerals, hardness refers to...
An ability to being scratched by other substances
A blob-like igneous rock body found beneath the surface of the Earth is called a...
Pluton
When rock is partially melted, the chemistry of the melt is...
More mafic than the original chemistry of the rock that was partially melted
The silica tetrahedron that forms the backbone of all silicate minerals is composed of silicon and what other element?
Oxygen
The color of a mineral in powdered form is termed...
Streak
With regard to minerals, hardness refers to...
An ability to being scratched by other substances