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178 Cards in this Set

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strata beds
parallel layers of sedimentary rock
salt flat
A white crust on the ground that is produced when water evaporates and leaves its dissolved materials behind
sorting
The degree of similarity in particle size in sediment or sedimentary rock
sedimentary environment
a geographic location where sediment is accumulating
sediment
Unconsolidated particles transported by water, wind, or glaciers.
ripple mark
Small waves of sand that develop on the surface of a sediment layer by the action of moving water or air.
reservoir rock
the porous section of an oil trap that yields oil and gas
oil trap
a structure that allows large amounts of oil and gas to gather
nonmetal mineral resource
mineral resource that is not a fuel or processed for the metals it contains
nonclastic
a term for the texture of sedimentary rocks in which the minerals form a pattern of interlocking crystals
mud crack
in sedimentary rocks that forms when wet mud dries shrinks and cracks
lithification
The process, generally in which sediments are converted to solid rock.
graded bed
A sediment layer characterized by a decrease in sediment size from bottom to top.
fossil fuel
any hydrocarbon that can be used as fuel
fossil
the remains or traces of organisms from the past
evaporite
A sedimentary rock formed of material deposited from solution by evaporation of water.
Environment of deposition
Same as sedimentary environment.
diagenesis
All chemical, physical, and biological changes that take place after sediments are deposited and during and after lithification.
Detrital sedimentary rock
Rocks that form from the accumulation of materials that originate and are transported as solid particles derived from both mechanical and chemical weathering.
Crystalline texture
A texture in which the minerals form a pattern of interlocking crystals (same as nonclastic).
Cross-bedding
Structure in which relatively thin layers are inclined at an angle to the main bedding. This is formed by currents of wind or water.
compacting
This is a type of lithification in which the weight of overlying material compresses the more deeply buried sediment. It is most important in fine-grained sedimentary rocks.
clastic
a sedimentary rock texture consisting of broken fragments of preexisting rock
Chemical sedimentary rock
Sedimentary rock that has material that was precipitated from water by either inorganic or organic means.
Cementation
A way in which sedimentary rocks are lithified. When the material precipitates from water that percolates through the sediment, the open spaces are filled and particles are joined to form a solid mass.
cap rock
Impermeable and keeps upwardly mobile oil and gas from escaping at the surface.
Biochemical origin
Organic processes of water-dwelling organisms also form chemical sediments are said to be of this origin.
bedding planes
A flat (nearly) surface separating two beds of sedimentary rock. Each bedding plane marks the end of one deposit and the beginning of another having different characteristics.
caldera
large depressions that are more or less circular
Aa flow
The flow of the basaltic lava sharp edges, spiny projections, jagged blocks. relatively cool and thick
batholith
A large mass of igneous rock that is formed when magma is emplaced at depth, crystallized, and exposed to erosion.
Block lavas
Generated by andesitic and rhyolitic magmas. They consist largely of detached blocks with slightly curved surfaces.
cinder cone
A small volcano built primarily of pyrolastics ejected from one single vent.
columnar joints
A pattern of cracks that forms during cooling of molten rock to generate columns.
composite cones
a volcano composed of both lava flows and pyroclastic material
concordant
Describes intrusive igneous masses that form parallel to the bedding of the surrounding rock.
Conduit
A circular pipe that magma moves through which terminates at a vent
Continental volcanic arc
Mountains formed in part by igneous activity associated with the subduction of oceanic lithosphere beneath any continent.
crater
A steep walled depression at the summit of a volcano
dike
an intrusive igneous feature that cuts through surrounding rock
discordant
distributes plutons that cut accross existing rock structures
Eruption column
Buoyant plumes that extend thousands of meters into the atmosphere and are caused by the expulsion of hot ash-laden gases.
fissure
a crack (distinct seperation) in a rock
fissure eruption
lava eruptions through fissures
Flood basalt
Flows of basaltic lava that issue from numerous cracks or fissures and commonly cover extensive areas to thickness of hundreds of meters.
fumerole
a vent in a volcanic area that allows fumes or gases to escape
Hot spot
A concentration of heat in the mantle that is capable of introducing magma that extrudes onto Earth’s surface.
Intraplate volcanism
Igneous activity that occurs within a tectonic plate away from the plate boundaries.
island arc
same as volcanic island arc
Laccolith
A large concordant igneous body that intruded between preexisting strata.
Lahar
Mudflows on the slopes of volcanoes. Result when unstable layers of ash and debris become saturated and flow down slope.
lava tube
Cave like voids that were filled with molten lava.
Mantle plume
hotter than normal mantle material that can cause igneous activity
Nuee ardente
Incandescent volcanic debris that is buoyed up by hot gases and moves down slope in an avalanche fashion.
Pahoehoe flow
When fluid basaltic lavas of the Hawaiian type congeal they can form a smooth skin that wrinkles as lava advances. These resemble the twisting braids in ropes.
Parasitic cone
A volcanic cone that forms on the flank of a larger volcano.
pipe
conduit
Pillow lava
lava flow composed of structures resembling large bed pillows stacked atop each other.
Pluton
A structure that results from the emplacement and crystallization of magma beneath Earth’s surface.
Pyrolastic flow
Particles produced that range in size from fine dust and sand sized volcanic ash to pieces that can weigh several tons.
Pyroclastic material
The volcanic rock ejected during an eruption. Include ash, bombs, and blocks.
scoria cone
cinder cone
Shield volcano
A broad gently sloping volcano built from fluid basaltic lavas.
Sill
A tabular igneous body that was intruded parallel to the layering of preexisting rock.
Stratovolcano-
composite cone
vent
where pipes end
tubular
A feature having two dimensions that are much longer than the third.
viscosity
mobility of magma
Volcanic Island Arc
A chain of volcanic islands located a few hundred kilometers from a trench where there is active subduction of one oceanic plate beneath another.
Volcanic neck
An isolated, steep-sided, erosional remnant consisting of lava that once occupied the vent of a volcano.
volcano
a mountain formed from lava and or pyroclastic material
volatiles
the gaseous component of magma mostly water
Chemical weathering
The process by which the internal structure of a mineral is altered by the removal and/or addition of elements.
Differential weathering
The unusual weathering (not uniform) that creates many unusual rock formations and land forms.
Eluviation
The washing out of fine soil components from the A horizon by downward-percolating water.
Erosion
The incorporation and transportation of material by a mobile agent, such as water, wind, or ice.
exfoliation dome
large granite dome structure formed by sheeting
external process
Process such as weathering, mass wasting, or erosion that is powered by the Sun and transforms solid rock into sediment.
frost wedging
The mechanical breakup of rock caused by the expansion of freezing water in cracks and crevices.
horizons
layers or zones in soil
Internal process
A process such as mountain building or volcanism that derives its energy from Earth’s interior and elevates Earth’s surface.
leaching
The depletion of soluble materials from the upper soil by downward-percolating water.
mass wasting
The down slope movement of rock, regolith, and soil under the direct influence of gravity.
mechanical weathering
The physical disintegration of rock resulting in smaller fragments.
parent material
the material on which soil develops
regolith
The layer of rock and mineral fragments that nearly everywhere covers Earth’s land surface.
Secondary enrichment
The concentration of minor amounts of metals that are scattered through unweathered rocks into economically valuable concentrations by weathering processes.
sheeting
A mechanical weathering process characterized by the splitting off of slab like sheets of rock.
soil
A combination of mineral and organic mater, water, and air; that portion of the regolith that supports plant growth.
soil profile
A vertical section through a soil showing its succession of horizons and the underlying parent material.
soil taxonomy
A soil classification system. Six categories
Solum
The O, A, and B horizons in a soil profile. Living roots and other plant and animal life are here
spheroidal weathering
Any weathering process that tends to produce a spherical shape
talus slope
Sections or rock that has been wedged loose and collects at the base of a cliff.
weathering
The disintegration and decomposition of rock at or near the surface of the Earth.
andesitic composition
rocks with composition between granitic and basaltic
Aphanitic texture
igneous rocks in which the crystals are too small for individual minerals to be distinguished with the unaided eye.
assimilation
The process in which a magma body’s composition changes through the incorporation of foreign neighboring material (when magma is moving up).
basaltic composition
rocks with a lot of dark silicate material
Bowen’s reaction series
illustrates the relationship between magma and the minerals crystallizing from it during the formation of igneous rock.
Crystallization
As magma cools ions move slowly and join together to form crystalline structures. This process generates various silicate minerals that reside within the remaining melt.
crystal settling
The process that occurs when earlier-formed minerals are heavier than the liquid portion and sink toward the bottom of the magma chamber. Then the remaining melt solidifies with a very different chemical composition from the parent magma.
decompression melting
This occurs when temperature drops enough. This is responsible for generating magma along divergent plate boundaries
extrusive
igneous rocks that form at the surface
felsic
A term derived from feldspar and silica which is used to describe granitic igneous rocks.
Fragmental texture
Same as pyroclastic texture.
Geothermal gradient
Increase in temp at depth
glass
rocks with unordered ions
glassy texture
texture of igneous rocks with no crystals
groundmass
The matrix of smaller crystals within an igneous rock that has porphyritic texture.
granitic composition
igneous rocks with light colored silicates
Hydrothermal solutions
The hot and watery solution that escapes from a mass of magma during the later stages of crystallization. The solutions may alter the surrounding rock
igneous rocks
formed by the crystallization of molten magma
Intermediate composition-
andesitic composition
intrusive
plutonic
lava
magma that reaches the earth's surface
mafic
basaltic rocks
magma
Completely or partly molten material which forms igneous rock when it cools and solidifies.
magma mixing
A way in which the composition of a magma body can be altered. combination of fluids may cause an intermediate composition
magmatic differentiation
The formation of one or more secondary magmas from a single parent magma is called this.
melt
the liquid portion of magma
partial melting
the incomplete melting of rocks that produces most magma
pegmatite
An extremely coarse-grained igneous rock that is commonly found as a dike.
pegmatitic texture
texture of igneous rocks interlocking crystals are at least 1 cm in diameter
Phaneritic texture
An igneous rock texture in which the crystals are roughly equal in size and large enough so that individual minerals can be identified with the unaided eye.
Phenocryst
Conspicuously large crystals in a porphyry that are imbedded in a matrix of fine-grained crystals.
plutonic
igneous rocks that form at depth
Porphyritic texture
An igneous rock texture characterized by two distinctively different crystal sizes.
porphyry
igneous rock with porphyritic texture
pyroclastic texture
igneous rock texture of rocks formed by the consolidation of individual rock fragments that are ejected during a violent eruption.
texture
The size shape and distribution of the particles that collectively constitute a rock.
ultramafic
igneous rocks made up almost entirely of ferromagnesian materials
Vesicular texture
aphanitic and igneous rocks that contain many small cavities
volatiles
gaseous component of magma
volcanic
same as extrusive
atom
the smallest particle of matter
atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
cleavage
the tendency of minerals to break along planes of weak bonding
color
an unreliable feature to classify or observe minerals
compound
A substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions and usually having properties different from those if its constituent elements.
covalent bond
bond produced by sharing of electrons
crystal form
external expression of the internal arrangement of atoms
dark silicates
Minerals containing ions of iron and/or magnesium. dark in color and have a greater specific gravity.
density
mass per unit volume
electron
negatively charged subatomic particle outside the nucleus of an atom
element
A substance that cannot be broken down into a simpler one by chemical or physical means.
energy levels
sphere shaped negatively charged zone
ferromagnesian silicates
dark silicates
fracture
when minerals do not exhibit cleavage when broken
hardness
minerals resistance to scratching and abrasion
ion
an atom or molecule with an electric charge
ionic bond
A chemical bond between two oppositely charged ions formed by the transfer of valence electrons
isotope
varieties of the same element wtih the same number of protons and a different number of neutrons (diff mass number)
Light silicates
Silicate minerals that lack iron and/or magnesium. They are generally lighter in color and have lower specific gravities than dark silicates.
Luster
The appearance or quality of light reflected from the surface of a mineral.
mass number
sum of neutrons and protons in the nucleus of an atom
Metallic bond
A chemical bond present in all metals which the electrons move freely from atom to atom.
mineral
Any naturally occurring inorganic solid that possesses an orderly crystalline structure and a definite chemical composition.
mineral resource
All discovered and undiscovered deposits of a useful mineral that can be extracted now or at some time in the future.
mohls scale
scale with ten minerals to determine hardness
neutron
subatomic particle with a neutral charge in the nucleus of an atom
nonsilicates
minerals that are less abundant in the earth's crust
Nonferromagnesian silicates
light silicates
nucleus
core of an atom with neutrons and protons that holds most of its mass
ore
metallic mineral that can be mined at a profit
periodic table
arrangement of elements according to atomic number
principal shells
energy levels
proton
positively charged subatomic particle (in nucleus)
radioactive decay
the process when isotopes disintegrate
reserve
identified deposits where minerals can be profitably extracted
rock
any solid mass of minerals (or mineral like) matter that occurs naturally as part of our planet.
rock-forming minerals
any mineral that forms rocks
silicates
any mineral with silicon-oxygen tetrahedron as their basic structure
Silicon-oxygen tetrahedron
A structure composed of four oxygen atoms surrounding a silicon atom
specific weight
ratio of a substances weight in comparison to the weight of an equal amount of water
streak
the color of a mineral in powdered form
valence electron
The electrons involved in the bonding process; the electrons occupying the highest principal energy level of an atom.
abyssal plain
Extremely flat areas that are part of the deep-ocean basin.