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51 Cards in this Set

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Igneous Rocks
rocks that form by solidifying from a cooling melt
extrusive (volcanic)
at the earth's surface
intrusive (plutonic)
in the Earth
basaltic rocks are consumed at______ boundaries
convergent
basaltic magma is ?
fluid
how does magma change composition?
1. assimilation
2. magma mixing
3.magmatic differentiation
magma
molten rock found at depth, including dissolved gasses and crystals
lava
magma that reaches the Earth's surface
porphyritic
two different crystal sizes in an igneous rock
felsic
relatively cool and very sticky (granite)
intermediate
hot, fairly sticky (diorite, andesite)
mafic
hot, flows easily (gabbro, basalt)
what three factors contribute to the textures of igneous rocks?
1. rate at which magma cools
2.amount of silica present
3.amount of dissolved gases in the magma
As magma loses heat the mobility of its ions_____
decrease
glass
rocks that consist of unordered ions
slow cooling promotoes the growth of_____ crystals
large
vesicular
fill with voids, or holes left by gas bubbles
aphanatic texture
igneous rocks that form at the surface or as small masses within the upper crust where cooling is relatively rapid, this causes a VERY FINE GRAINED TEXTURE
phaneritic texture
coarse grained texture, when large masses of magam slowly solidify far below the surface.
glassy texture
when molten rock is ejected into the atmosphere, where it is quenched quickly.
pyroclastic texture
formed from consolidation of individual rock fragments that are ejected during a violent volcanic eruption
pegmatitic texture
composed of interlocking crystals all larger than a centimeter in diameter.
what three factors contribute to the textures of igneous rocks?
1. rate at which magma cools
2.amount of silica present
3.amount of dissolved gases in the magma
As magma loses heat the mobility of its ions_____
decrease
glass
rocks that consist of unordered ions
slow cooling promotoes the growth of_____ crystals
large
vesicular
fill with voids, or holes left by gas bubbles
aphanatic texture
igneous rocks that form at the surface or as small masses within the upper crust where cooling is relatively rapid, this causes a VERY FINE GRAINED TEXTURE
phaneritic texture
coarse grained texture, when large masses of magam slowly solidify far below the surface.
glassy texture
when molten rock is ejected into the atmosphere, where it is quenched quickly.
pyroclastic texture
composed of fragments ejected during an eruption.
pegmatitic texture
composed of interlocking crystals all larger than a centimeter in diameter.
magmatic differentiation
when one of more magmas form from a single parent magma
assimilation
as magma migrates upwards, it may coroporate some surrounding host rock
viscosity
the magma's mobility
volatiles
the gaseous component of magma
pahohoe flows
resemble twisting braids in ropes
Aa flows
surface of rough jagged blocks
crater
steep-walled depression in a volcano
dike
tabular rock body that cuts across surrounding layers
sill
tabular, but concordant to surrounding layers
batholith
huge volume of granite rock, new continental crust forming along margins of continents
xenolith
pieces of surrounding rock that fall into the magma
columner jointing
slow cooling allows cracks to develope
roof pendent
the roof falls in and becomes partially baked
volcano
cone shaped land form that rises up from the Earth
why do minerals grow into geometric shapes?
the atoms are arranged in geometric patterns.
why do minerals cleave along regular planes?
They break or cleave on an ionic boonded pattern.
Why do some minerals lack cleavage?
There are no weak bonds.
How are diamond and graphite similar?
same chemical composition
How do diamond and graphite differ?
they were created under different types of pressure.