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45 Cards in this Set

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TRUE OR FALSE:
(metamorphic rocks)
Non-foliated= minerals are lined up
FALSE: minerals are lined up= foliated
this texture indicates coarse grains
phaneritic
this texture indicates fine grains
anphanetic
this texture indicates a mix of phaneritic and anphanetic
prophyritic
this texture indicates unordered ions
glassy
the large crystals in a rock with a porphyritic texture are called _______.
pheoncrysts
the small crystals in a rock with a porphyritic texture are called _______.
groundmass
______ cooling promotes the growht of fewer, but larger crystals
slow
TRUE OR FALSE:
igneous rocks are most often classified by their texture and mineral compostion
true
igneous rocks that form when molton rock solidifies AT THE SURFACE are classified as _______.
extrusive
igneous rocks that form at depth are called _______.
intrusive
TRUE OR FALSE:
Feldspar makes up the ocean crust as well as lava flows and volcanic structures on land.
FALSE: basalt
what can greatly affect both the size and arrangement of crystals in an igneous rock?
the rate of cooling
_______ is the tendency of a mineral to break along planes of weaker bonding
cleavage
___________ may occur when rock ascends as a result of convection upswelling, thereby moving into zones of lower.
decompression melting
subduction zones are which type of plate boundry?
convergent
this type of volcano is smaller and usually located in the continental crust and above sea level in oceans
cinder cone
thys type of volcano is larger and located in continental margins. it has some expolosive events
composite cone
these volcanoes are huge, and are located along ocean basin. they have relatively quiet eruptions composed mainly of basalt
shield volcano
a _______ boundry is normally devoid of volcanism
transform
the _________ is the relatively rigid zone above the asthenosphere that includes the crust and the upper mantle
lithosphere
vents that emit only hot gases and vapors are called
fumeroles
this type of lava is rough and jagged
Aa
this type of lava is smooth and can resemble twisting ropes in braids
pahoehoe
this type of lava in composed of elongated structures that indicate lava flow formed underwater
pillow
TRUE OR FALSE:
The more silica in magma, the greater the viscosity
true
TRUE OR FALSE:
basaltic lavas tend to be quite fluid
true, it has high silica content
very destructive event, meaning glowing avalanche.
nuee' ardentes
destructive flow occurs when volcanic debris becomes saturated with water and rapidly moves down steep volcanic slope. volcano does not need to be erupting for this to happen
lahar
a structure that results from the emplacement and crystallization of magma beneath the surface
plutons
said to be this if it cuts across existing structure
discordant
said to be this if it forms parallel to features such as sedimentary strata
concordant
this is said to be the most important agent in metamorphism
heat
3 agents involved in metamorphism
heat, pressure, chemically active fluids
this means that temperature increases with depth
geothermal gradient
when magma intrudes relatively cool rocks at shllow depths, host rock is baked
contact metamorphism
this is used to describe size, shape, and arrangement of grains within a rock
texture
type of foliation characteristic of coarse grained metamorphic rocks
shistocity
texture in which dark and light silicate minerals are separated giving the rock a banded appearance
gneissic texture
this foliated metamorphic rock is very fine grained and closely resembles shale
slate
this consists of tilted or folded sedimentary rocks that are overlain by younger, more flat lying strata. indicates that tilting or folding may have occured
angular unconformity
represents a long period where depostition ceased, and then resumed
unconformity
type of unconformity where strata on either side are esssentially parallel
disconformity
typy of unconformity where the break separates older metamorphic rock or igneous rock from younger sedimentary strata
nonconformity
the time required for half of the nuclei to decay
half life