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80 Cards in this Set

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A mineral must be...
Solid
Naturally Occurring
A mineral cannot be...
Organic
Glass
Chemically Variable
A Rock or "Stone"
Cleavage
Plane of atomic weakness
Aphanitic
microscopic crystals
quick cooling
volcanic
phaneritic
visible crystals
slow cooling
plutonic
Porphyritic
mixed sizes
mixed cooling
Felsic: Depleted in ______ and ______; and rich in ______ and _______
Depleted in iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg)
Rich in silica (SiO 2), aluminum (Al)
Igneous
Any rock solidified from liquid “soup”of
elements
Felsic: Color and Density
Light colored and not dense
Mafic: Depleted in ______ and ______; and rich in ______ and _______
Depleted in SiO2, Al
Rich in Fe, Mg
Mafic: Color and density
Dark colored and dense
Mafic: Definition
Sima, “basic”
Felsic: Definition
Sialic, "acidic"
3 basic characteristics of igneous rock
Hint: all three involve "crystal"
1. interlocking crystals growing together
2. random crystal orientation
3. 100% crystallized
no pore space
Two types of igneous rock
Plutonic and Volcanic
Plutonic igneous rocks are solidified at ______
Depth of several km
2 examples of where to find plutonic igneous rocks in CA
Sierra Nevada, Yosemite
Plutonic igneous rocks cooled quickly or slowly?
Very slowly
Large phaneritic crystals, cooled very slowly
Plutonic igneous rock
Microscopic aphanitic crystals, cooled very quickly
Volcanic igneous rock
Volcanic igneous rock cooled where?
solidified near surface
2 places to find volcanic igneous rock
Hawaii and Mt Lassen
Vesicles: Definition
Bubbles
Where do vesicles happen/form?
Volcanic areas
How do vesicles happen?
as magma nears surface, gas released
gas bubbles, froths
The big eight are all ______
silicate
Quartz
hard (Moh’s7)translucent
forms points, 6-sided
fractures like glass (conchoidal)
no cleavage
equally hard in every direction
K-spar, potassium feldspar
2 cleavages @ 90o
relatively hard, opaque
grey, white, green, pink
plagioclase
2 cleavages @ 90o
relatively hard
opaque
grey, white
biotite
very soft
shiny jet black
flaky w/ 1 excellent cleavage
muscovite
very soft
shiny golden
flaky w/ 1 excellent cleavage
pyroxene
2 directions of cleavage @ 90o
dull, stubby
greenish
olivine
greenish, gray
weak aggregate, “sandy”
tiny, hard crystals
amphibole
jet black
elongated xtls
2 directions of cleavage @ 120o/60o
Shale
grains too small to see
DULL in color, esp compared to slate
Sandstone
grains sand size
Gritty
Hard but not that hard
Not very dense
POROSITY
Conglomerate
grains big
rounded pieces
Biogenic
Meaning and how classified
Derived from living organisms
Classified primarily by material
Terrigenous
Meaning and how classified
Derived from terra
Classified primarily by size
Chert
Made up of tiny siliceous shells
Can later crystalize and become quartz
Limestone
Made up of tiny clacareous shells
(Shells of organisms that made their cells out of glass)
Diatoms
Single cell, pin-head sized organism, precipitate shell out of glass, live for day or two, when dead are eaten and pooped on to bottom of ocean
Collection of elements that compose a mineral:
Na, Cl, Si, O, Fe, U
Minerals are held together by __________
Also: Chemical equation
Electric Bonding
Na4+Cl=NaCl0
Metamorphic Rock
Rock altered by heat and/or pressure, changing its mineralogy and texture.
Slate
Barely metamorphosed
Fine-grain
Slight shine
Slate: Layering
Flat sheets, original layering
Phylite
Slightly more cooked than slate
Rougher skin
Shinier
Phylite's secondary minerals
Garnet, pyrite
Schist
Very shiny (due to alignment of micas)
Wavy layering
A lot of secondary minerals: garnet, pyrite
Gneiss
Almost melted
Flat, not shiny (looks igneous)
Distinct foliation layers not found in igneous rocks
What makes schist shiny?
Micas
How to recognize Augen Schist?
Eye-like pattern
Blueschist
Also: Why blue?
High pressure
Low temperature (subduction zone)
Very Rare worldwide
Blue=mineral glaucophane
Knockers: Definition and Cause
Isolated rocks
Result of subduction
Asbestos
Group of 6 minerals
Stringy cleavage, like hair
Can be woven into cloth
Very fire resistant
Color of deadly asbestos?
Blue (crocidolite)
Color of not so deadly asbestos
Green (chrysolite)
3 Minerals that compose serpentinite
1. lizardite
scaly, light green
2. antigorite
darker, schistose
3. chrysotile
pale green parallel fibers
common asbestos
Quartzite
Metamorphosed sandstone
Very stable
Marble
Metamorphosed limestone
Reacts with acid rain
Serpentinization
Reaction of very mafic rock with water, peridotite, dunite
Serpentinization: Specifics
Water incorporated into min structure
large density loss: 3.3 2.7 g/cm
3300L water per 1m^3 serpentinite
low calcium, nitrogen
big energy release (exothermic)
General formula for serpentinite
General formula for serpentinite:
(Mg, Fe)^3 Si2O5(OH)4
Serpentinite hospitable to plants?
No, very toxic for most plants
Where do diamonds form?
Not close to Earth's surface
What environment do diamonds need? (pressure/heat)
Limited temperature/pressure range
depth: 90-120 miles
(45-60 kbars)
temperature: 900-1300 oC
Facies
Set of minerals which are stable at specific temperature/pressure ranges
Most metamorphic rocks have narrow or wide range of minerals?
Narrow
Garnet
(Fe, Mg)Al2(SiO4)3
iron-aluminum-silicate
dark-red, burgundy
rounded, like soccer ball
Secondary mineral in metamorphic rocks
indicates level of _____________?
Recrystallization
Clay: 2 definitions
1. anything smaller than 63 microns
2. Distinct mineral group:
Kaolinite, smectite
Calcite
Important mineral in sediments
3 directions of cleavage; not @ 90o
Soft, translucent
Fizzes vigorously in HCl
Calcite makes what common thing?
Shells
Pillow Basalt
glassy on rim
increasing xtl size toward center
more time to cool
Where does pillow basalt tend to form?
Where crust is pulling part
Tuff
Volcanic material ash, lapilli
Settles in low spots
Heat “welds”it back together
Columnar Jointing
Occurs when lava flows close to surface
cooling featurelava expanded when hot
frozen in sizecontracts when cooled
Turbidite
Deposits from submarine landslides
Thick flow of fine mud—big chunks
Gravity-driven “turbidity current”
Travels far into deep oceans
How does turbidite settle
Biggest pieces first, smaller on top