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53 Cards in this Set

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Deformation
The change that a rock body undergoes in volume and or shape
Elastic Deformation
Temporary + reversible
Plastic Deformation
Permanent Folding 15km- below
Brittle Deformation
Permanent Fracturing. 0km-15km
Stress
The force that produces deformation
Compression stress
→ ← then →←
Dip-slip Reverse Fault
Convergent Boundary
right stepping/left lateral
Tension stress
← → then ← →
Dip-slip Normal Fault
Divergent Boundary
Shear stress
→ ← gets smeared out like a deck of cards
Strike Slip Fault (left/right lateral)
Fault
a fracture where you have clear displacement/offset
Hanging Wall
Foot Wall
HW on top
FW on bottom
3 types of Dip-slip
2 types of strike-slips
normal, reverse, thrust
right-lateral, left-lateral
San Andreas Fault
Right Lateral Strike Slip and transform plate boundary
Majority of world's earthquakes occur where?
Circum-Pacific Region. Lots of earthquakes from convergent plate boundaries. Subduction. Ring of Fire volcanoes
Deepest earthquakes
>300km deep. convergent plate boundaries. subduction zone.
Elastic Rebound Theory
Rock springs back to its original shape.
Hypocenter
focus
Epicenter
place above the focus where the earthquake hits.
Fault Creep
Some places have a lot of tension.
Body Waves
Primary Waves
Secondary waves
Surface Waves
aka L-waves Can only travel along the surface, not through the earth
Rayleighwaves
Lovewaves
Primary Waves
Body Waves
P waves
change in volume
waves of compression
Secondary Waves
Body waves
S waves
change in shape
Rayleighwaves
Surface Waves
change in shape
opposite of an ocean wave, counterclockwise rotating motion
Lovewaves
change in shape
up down up down
Order of when waves arive?
Pwave --> Swave --> Lwaves
P-S interval
time between the Pwave and Swave
greater the distance is the greater the distance to the epicenter
Triangulation
3 stations to locate where an earthquake occurs
Intensity
effects of the earthquake at any given location. Use the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale
Magnitude
direct measure of the earthquake's strength
Richter Scale/Magnitude Scale
Richter/magnitude scale
1 step 10x ground 30x energy
2 step 100x ground 900x energy
Base shear
shearing off the base of a building. have to prevent soft 1st stories
Resonance
When the period of the motion of the building is in sync with the motion of the wave. Softer the material the waves will slow down. If the wave slows down the vibrations will increase
Liquefaction
Cubic packing - grain is touching 4 other grains. There is pore space between grains.
Hexagonal Packing - grain touches 6 other grains. There is less pore space
Northridge Earthquake
1994. 6.7 magnitude. Blind thrust fault. Sediment builds up over thousands of years. faults in the basins.
Tsunami
created by vertical boundaries. Caused by subduction zones.
Landers/Big Bear 1992
7.5 Magnitude in landers. 3 hours later 6.5 at big bear. landers triggered big bear.
What segment of the San Andreas fault has a recurrence interval of about 22 years?
Parkfield
EQ Prediction?
Seismic gaps
Recurrence Intervals
Dilatancy
Dilation
Expansion
As the stress increases dilation will occur. 1. small microcracks. 2. dilation expansion. 3. influx of water. this leads to a rupture aka earthquake
Predictions of dilation
ground tilt
foreshocks
measure electrical conductivity
measure radon level
Mass Wasting
down slope of a moving material under the influence of gravity
Types of Mass Wasting Material
Bedrock - rock
soil (wet or dry) - earth (wet or dry)
H20 Saturated Soil - Mud
Bedrock + Soil - debris
Types of Mass Wasting Motion
fall - free fall
slide
flow
Talus
rock buildup at the base of a cliff. Water expands rocks and pushes them apart and they free fall off.
Gros Ventre, Wyoming
Debris Slide.
Viaont Dam, Italy
Debris Slide
human error. heave snow followed by a wet spring
Yungay, Peru
Avalanche
Huascarian Peak
Earthquake lead to the avalanche
New Madrid, MO 1811-1812
3 great EQs in 53 days.
Lisbon, Portugal 1755
Intrapate. 3 great eqs in over 2 hours. Epicenter offshore of Lisbon. destroyed by tsunami
Alaska 1964
Subduction Zone at convergent plate boundary. most died because of the tsunami
Loma Prieta 1989
Nimitz Freeway upper deck collapsed
Haicheng China 1975
Observers noticed it and had every citizen evacuake.
Tangenshen 1976
massive earthquake in china 250k died one year after Haicheng