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51 Cards in this Set

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Small glaciers that are confined to valleys:
Mountain Glaciers
-alpine or valley
Where are all of the world's glaciers located?
85% in Antarctica
10% in Greenland
5% everywhere else
A mass of ice and snow that moves under its own weight:
Glacier
What are the 2 types of glaciers?
1) Mountain Glaciers
-alpine or valley

2) Ice Sheets
-continental glaciers
How much of the Earth's surface is covered by glaciers today?
10%
A gritty or granular type of ice:
Firn
Which state has the most glaciers in the U.S.?
Alaska
What type of glaciers are found in the U.S.?
Only alpine/valley glaciers
Fractures in the upper 40-50 meters of a glacier:
Crevasse
Process in which glaciers break into pieces because of fractures caused by crevasses:
Calving
How much of an iceberg is below the water?
90%
Movement in which a glacier slides along its base:
Basal sliding (i.e. bar of soap sliding when wet)
Very dense ice that forms over very long periods of time:
Glacial ice
What/ are crevasse's shaped like
V shaped
Huge glaciers that cover immense areas that can be up to 1-3 miles thick:
Ice Sheets
-continental glaciers
Process in which plucked fragments are scraped across underlying rock:
Abrasion
A bowl-shaped depression that forms at the head of a valley glacier:
Cirque
What are often the sites of spectacular waterfalls?
Hanging valleys
Pieces of glaciers that have broken loose due to calving:
Icebergs
What shape are glacial valleys?
U shaped
A large boulder that is transported by glacial ice:
Erratic
What are the 2 mechanisms of erosion by glaciers?
1) plucking
2) abrasion
Which type of glaciers are the largest?
Ice sheets (continental glaciers)
Scratches or grooves that are formed by abrasion?
Striations
What are the 2 major types of depositional material carried by glaciers?
1) till
2) outwash
A sharp, narrow ridge that separates adjacent cirques:
Arete
Poorly sorted, poorly stratified material that is deposited by glacial ice:
Till
What shape are stream valleys?
V shaped
Pulverized rock fragments that are produced when abrasion scrapes the plucked rocks across underlying rock:
Rock flour
How is glacial ice formed?
Snow
Firm
Glacial ice
Which glacier moves away from a central area and spreads out in all directions?
Ice sheets (continental glaciers)
What are the 5 erosional features/landscapes formed by MOUNTAIN GLACIERS?
1) cirque
2) arete
3) horn
4) hanging valley
5) U-shaped valley
What type of deposit is till?
Ice deposit
What makes up the snow found in glacial ice?
SNOW
-90% air
-10% ice
Which section of a glacier is very rigid and will not flow?
The upper 40-50 meters
V shaped valley:
Stream valley
A ridge of till that is deposited when a glacier is stationary:
Moraine
What type of deposit is outwash?
Water deposit
A sharp peak at the top of an arete:
Horn
What makes up the firn found in glacial ice?
FIRN
25-50% air
Whether a glacier is advancing or retreating, it is always...
Flowing/moving (unless it is inactive)
U shaped valley:
Glacial valley
What feature is often found at the sites of hanging valleys?
Waterfalls
How much of glacial ice is composed of air?
10-20%
Well-sorted, well-stratified material that is deposited by glacial ice:
Outwash
What are the 3 erosional features/landscapes formed by ICE SHEETS?
1) kettle
2) esker
3) drumlin
How is flow by alpine/valley glaciers different to that of continental glaciers?
Alpine/valley glaciers flow downhill as rivers do, and continental glaciers flow outward in all directions from a central area.
Glaciers will ____ when more snow or ice is being added to the glacier and it will ____ if more snow is melting then is being added.
Advance, retreat
A valley, carved by a glacier, whose sides are very steep and whose floor is rounded:
U-shaped valley
Process in which water melts into bedrock cracks and refreezes, prying fragments of rock loose:
Plucking
Tributary glacier valleys, where the main glacier cuts its deeper than the tributary glaciers:
Hanging valley (U-shaped)