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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The bowing of a large region of the earth's surface due to the movement of continents or the melting of continental glaciers.
Rock layers that have buckled under pressure by the movement of lithospheric plates.
Very large sea wave generated by an earthquake or a volcanic eruption.
Movement has been horizontal along the surface rather than upward or downward. Mountains have risen as the result of faulting.
San Andreas fault system
Whenever movement occures along a fault, or at another point of weakness, _____ results:
An earthquake
According to the Richter Scale:
Not felt
Felt by some
Windows rattle
Windows break
Poorly const build destroyed
Steel bends
Nearly total damage
Total destruction
The richter scale is ___, which each increment of a whole number signifies a tenfold increase in magnitude. (not graduated, its geometric)
are responsible for the reduction of land surfaces. The worn, scraped, or blown away material is deposited in new places and new landforms are created.
Gradational processes
Three kinds of gradational processes occure:
weathering, mass movement, and erosion
the breakdown and decomposition of rocks and minerals at or near the earth's surface in response to atmospheric factors is called:
the physical disintegration of earth materials at or near the surface, larger rocks are broken into smaller pieces.
Mechanical weathering
The decomposition of earth materials because of chemical reactions that include oxidation, hydration, and carbonation.
Chemical weathering
The downslope movement of material due to gravity
Mass movement (aka mass wasting)
such as wind, water, and glaciers, carve already existing landforms into new shapes.
Erosional agents
sand and mud
A steep-sided, flat-bottomed gully, usually dry, carved out of desert land by rapidly flowing water.
A dry, braided channel in the desert that remains after the rush of rainfall runoff water.
A small, flat-topped, isolated hill with steep sides, common in dry climate regions.
An extensive, flat-topped elevated tableland with horizontal strata, a resistant cap rock, and one or more steep sides; a large butte.
The upper limit of the saturated zone and therefore of groundwater; the top of the water within an aquifer.
Water table
Refers to a large limestone region marked by sinkholes, caverns, and underground streams.
Karst topography
a large body of ice moving slowly down a slope or spreading outward on a land surface.
a permanently frozen layer of ground that can be as much as 300 meter deep.
The materials that constitute the earth's surface.
amount of water vapor, degree of cloud cover, nature of the earth surface, elevation above sea level, degree & direction of air movement
Determines the temp at any given location:
a moment view of the lower atmosphere.
a description of typical weather conditions in an area or at a place over a period of time.
At any given place, the amount of incoming solar radiation
The rate of temperature change with altitude in the troposphere
Lapse rate
Air at lower altitudes is cooler that air aloft
Temperature inversion
causes air to blow from an area of high pressure toward an area of low pressure
Pressure gradient force
The circulatory motion of descending cool air and ascending warm air.
Convection System
Airflow from the land toward the sea, resulting from a nighttime pressure gradient that moves winds from the cooler land surface to the warmer sea surface. (ex of convection system)
Land breezes
Airflow from the sea toward the land, resulting from a daytime pressure gradient that moves winds from the cooler sea surface onto the warmer land surface. (ex of convection system)
Sea breezes
The downward flow of heavy, cool air at night from mountainsides to lower valley locations.
Mountain breezes
The flow of air up mountain slopes during the day.
Valley breezes
wind veers toward the right of the direction of travel in the Northern Hemisphere and toward the left in the Southern Hemisphere.
Coriolis effect
Causes wind to follow an intermediate path.
Frictional effect
The strongest flows of upper air winds, 9-12 kilometers
Jet streams
A wind system that reverses direction seasonally, producing wet and dry seasons; especially in Asia.
The principle surface ocean currents of the world Map Page 99
Ocean effects affect everything
The most dramatic cloud formation, which is an anvil-head cloud that oftern accompanies heavy rain.
Cumulonimbus clouds
Low, gray clouds that appear more oftern in cooler seasons than in warmer months.
Stratus clouds
the very high, wispy clouds that appear in all seasons and are made entirely of ice crystals.
Cirrus clouds
is a percentage measure of the moisture content of the air, expressed as the amount of water vapor present relative to the maximum that can exist at the current temperature.
Relative humidity
When large masses of air rise, precipitation may take place in one of three types:
convectional, orographic, or cyclonic
Results from rising, heated, moisture-laden air.
Convectional Precipitation
occures as warm air is forced to rise because hills or mountains block moisture-laden winds.
Orographic precipitation
common to the midlatitudes where cool and warm air masses meet.
Cyclonic (aka: frontal) precipitation
large bodies of air with similar temperature and humidity characteristics throughout.
Air masses
include large areas of uniform surface and relatively consistent temperatures.
source region
a large system of air circulation centered on a region of low atmospheric pressure is called a midlatitude ___, which can develop into a storm.
an intense tropical cyclone, which begins in a low-pressure zone over warm waters.
The name given a hurricane in the western Pacific
Separates the cold, dry air from whatever other air is in its path.
is the occurance of heavy snow and high winds.
the most violent and smallest of all storms characterized by a funnel-shaped cloud of whirling winds that can form beneth a cumulonimbus cloud in proxomity to a cold front and that moves at high speeds.
Five major factors involved in soil formation:
geologic, climatic, topographic, biological, and chronological.
The El Nino condition is an example of the interaction of:
Atmospheric pressure and ocean temperature
moderately dry lands