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14 Cards in this Set

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Urban Sprawl
Sprawl can be defined as “dispersed development outside of compact urban and village centers along highways and in rural countryside.”
Characteristics of Sprawl
• Low-density residential and commercial settlements
• Leapfrog development
• Fragmentation of political power
• Dominance of transportation by cars
• No centralized planning or control of land-uses
• Widespread strip commercial development
• Great fiscal disparities among localities
• Segregation of types of land uses in different zones
• Reliance mainly on the trickle-down or filtering process to provide housing to low-income households
Sprawl Impacts
• Sprawl is claiming 1.2 million acres of farmland and another .8 million acres of open space each year
• Ohio lost 4.3 million acres of farms between 1984 and 1995
• Between 1990-96 time wasted in traffic increased 260% in Cleveland
Causes of Sprawl
Lifestyle choice
Zoning
Federal housing policy
Highway building
Competition for tax revenues
Failure of regional planning
Causes of Sprawl
LIFESTYLE CHOICE
People want to get away from the “big city”, live on their own one, two, or ten acre piece of property while still having access to urban-style municipal services.
Causes of Spraw
ZONING
It supports the strict separation of land uses, with the basic idea being that every activity should be in a separate zone. For example, it would be harmful and indecent for people to live near shopping. This policy results in mandatory driving for daily living.
Causes of Sprawl
FEDERAL HOUSING POLICY
Federal housing policy helped the middle class move from the city to the suburbs. It also guaranteed that the dominant dwelling unit would be a single-family residence on a suburban lot. Some say it helped keep lower income groups out of the suburbs.
Causes of Sprawl
HIGHWAY BUILDING
Makes it feasible for people to continue to move outward.
Causes of Sprawl
COMPETITION FOR TAX REVENUES
Local governments may feel they cannot encourage quality developments.
Causes of Sprawl
FAILURE OF REGIONAL PLANNING
With fragmented metropolitan governance, regional planning is difficult to implement. Also, regional planning often is focused on promoting, not controlling, metropolitan expansion.
Solutions to Stop Sprawl
Create a sense of place
Transfer of development rights
Land purchases & conservation easements –
Solutions to Stop Sprawl
CREATE A SENSE OF PLACE
More compact and mixed land use development (housing areas are not isolated from work and shopping); a strong pedestrian orientation: active civic and community life; more public transit; and higher housing densities
Solutions to Stop Sprawl
TRANSFER OF DEVELOPMENT RIGHTS
Farmers and owners of open space are compensated for loss in income from not selling their land for a higher valued use by selling the land’s development rights which can be used to increase density in designated zones.
Solutions to Stop Sprawl
LAND PURCHASES & CONSERVATION EASEMENTS
Organizations buy land and areas around significant environmental areas to preserve it. Examples are The Nature Conservancy, The Trust for Public Land, and The Conservation Fund.