Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

83 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
5 themes of geography
1. Location
2. Place
3. Human Environment Interation
4. Movement
5. regions
Dew Point temperature
The more moisture in the air mass, the greater the dew point temp. When temp drops below the dew point temp condensation occurs
Textbook emphasis on 3 themes
1. geography examines the interrelationship between humans and their natural enviroments
2. many basic principles of human geography can be studied and demonstrated in your own hometown
3. geography is dynamic
What is human development?
includes adequate nutrition, education, political liberty, and the opportunity to live in a healthy unpolluted environment.
Elements of weather and climate
1. temperature
2. humidity/precipitation/ moisture
3. (wind) movement
The horizontal movement of air from a higher pressure to a lower pressure
the location of a place, relative to other places
relative location
influences accessibilty, which is indicated my terms such as near, far, etc.
areas defined by one or more distinctive characteristics or features such as climate, soil type, language, or economic activity.
air masses
a mass/blob of air has common characteristics: Temp and Humidity.
The amount of moisture is determined by temp.
hot=more moisture
cool=less moisture
describes the exact location of a place, can be described in latitude or longitude or in terms of the places characteristics
when the land gets heated enough to eat the air above it and the air rises
convering air; air is then cooled
a portrayal/representation of the earth in a reduced size
vernacular region
defined by widespread popular perception of their existance by people within or outside them.
functional region
one defined by interations among places
formal region
one that exhibits essential uniformity in one or more physical or cultural features
relative humidity
a measure of the actual amount of moisture divided by the potential amount of moisture
What causes the seasons
the earths tilt and parallelism
many activities have expanded their scale of organization to cover the whole globe
atmospheric pressure
made up of gasses that have weight
low pressure cyclonic storms; air continually converging and cooling. Lower the pressure the more the air can move
As long as we continue to blame nature...
1. we end up with an adversarial relationship with nature
2. we wont be able to understand the problem and then attempt a solution.
we need to have proactive behavior instead of reactive behavior
Def. how the earth spins on its axis
24hrs=i rotation
gives us the basic directions of N, S, E ,W
Hurricanes have...
wind, rain, and storm surge

come from warm ocean waiter 81-82 degrees
represenative fraction
the numerator must always be one
5 essentials of a good map
1. Title
2. Legend
3. Direction
4. Scale
5. Date
saturated air
100% RH
July 4th
eath is farthest from the sun. "away from the sun"
Jan 3rd
earth is closest to the sun. "near the sun"
def. how the earth goes around the sun
one revolution=364 days
oragraphic lift
forcing an air mass to rise up and over mountains
to cool the air (2)
1. increase latitude
2. increase altitude
really warm air collides with dry cold air and makes a vortex
a warm air mass rises up and over a cooler air mass
average distance from the earth to the sun
93 million miles
the drawing of maps
circle of illumination
divides the earth into two halves
diverging winds
high pressure winds
natural disaster
human casualties and or losses which occur when the dangerous interaction does occur between extreme natural processes and people
natural hazard
liklihood or threatof dangerous interaction between extreme natural processes and people
what degree is the earth tilted off the perpendicular
23.5 degrees
controls of both weather and climate
1. latitude
2. Elevation
3. Continentality
the momentary conditions of the atmosphere
the expected climate/conditions of the atmosphere based on the long term results and record keeping
convection system: in the top of a thunder cloud
converging winds
low pressure
geography can be subdivided into two groups:
physical: climate, plants, animals, landforms
human geography: the study of human groups and activities
*geogrpahy also studies the interatcion between the two*
population thematic maps
fossil fuels
carbon based biomatter compressedto be fuel and burned: oil, coal, and natural gas
condensation in a dense form; fog is just a cloud close to the ground
daylight savings time
spring forward, fall back
spring: we adopt the time of the time zone closest to the east
fall: go back to the original time
time zone
time zones begin at 0degrees (prime meridian) time meridians are all multiples of 15.
east and west determine the direction.
lines of longitude are also called meridians
each degree is 69 miles
lines are not parrallel;converge at the poles
International dateline
E - W advance one day
W - E go back one day
north and south designate which latitude you are using
each degree is 69 miles apart
max latitude is 90 degrees
greenhouse gasses
1. carbon dioxide
2. mathane
3. water vapor
distance decay
the presence or impact of any phenomenon may diminish away from its origin, just as the volume of sound dimishes with distance
an idealized simplified representaion of reality that can be used as a standard to compare individual cases in the real world
the process of and item or feature spreading through time
relocation diffusion
occurs from widely separted point to point
contiguous diffusion
occurs from one place directly to a neighboring place
hierarchial diffusion
sometimes diffusion does not occur contiguously across space but downward or upward
the solid earth of dirt and rock and sediment
consists of all the living organisms on earth
a group of organisms and the non living physical and chemical environment
the scientific study of ecosystems
natural landscape
one without evidence of human activity
cultural landscape
one that reveals the many ways people modify their local environment
the transferral of locations on earth's surface to locations on a flat map
conformal maps
maps that distort size but preserve shape
equal size maps
maps that distort shape but preserve size
the amount of solar energy intercepted by a particular area of the earth
energy that is transmitted by electromagnetic waves
latent heat exchange
tremendous amounts of energy from low latitudes to high ones
sensible heat
heat you can feel
latent heat
invisble stored heat
horizontal transfer of heat
adiabatic cooling
decrease in temperature that results from the expansion of rising air
Coriolis effect
combination of the earths rotation, and winds flowing in indirect paths
plants take up water through their roots and expel water vapor through their leaves
the condition of permenantly frozen ground
quarternary period
last 2 million yeard of excellent climate