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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Sayings that we say without knowing what they mean
rhymes and rigmaroles
speech sound
- High society “affectation” in 18th c. Paris
- Francophile court of Frederick the Great (Huguenot school teachers)
- Denmark, Sweden, Netherlands, even Iceland
Velar "R"
1994 law that banned some 3,500 identified foreign words and came up with French equivalents
Toubon Law
Organization whose members act as the official authority on all matters pertaining to the French language.
The French Academy (L'Academie Francaise)
No matter how much resistance, it happens anyway (English words in French language)
Most European languages are related to what major language family?
Indo-European family
The basic division of the Indo-European language family are __ (oldest) in the west and __ (younger) in the east.
Centum; Satem
What are the six sub-family groups?
- Romanic
- Germanic
- Celtic
- Balto-Slavonic
- Hellenic
- Illyrian or Thracian
What sub-family group is based on vulgar Latin speech of the Roman Empire, is not spoken widely in the East, and failed to replace completely other languages in the West?
Romanic Europe
What are the three forces of linguistic differentiation within Romanic Europe?
- substratum
- kind of Latin introduced
- superstratum
What two aspects are a part of standardization?
- "dialect with an army behind it"
- culturally established- writing and literature
What are the two processes that formed Germanic Europe?
Divergence and Isolation
What is the originally settled, Proto-Germanic hearth?
zone where the Baltic and North Sea come together (southern part of Scandinavia)
In what three directions did the original Germanic hearth spread?
north, east, west
How did the German language become standardized?
Martin Luther translated the Bible in standard written German
English is an amalgam of what other linguistic elements?
Celts, Romans, Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Vikings, Normans
Where was Celtic Europe originally?
The Celtic Rhine and spread through central and western Europe (Germans overran and pushed Celtic to fringe)
After the famine in the mid 19th century, the portion of Ireland's population using Irish as a mother tongue declined and became most prominently lodged in the western fringes of the island.
The Gaeltacht
What special thing happened to the Irish language in 2007?
It became an official language of the EU
Expected speech of educated Brits; means of standardizing dialect
Received Pronunciation (RP)
Explain four aspects of the pendulum swing concerning the received pronunciation.
globalization – foreigners learn and expect to hear RP, and are
mystified by regional accents.
- growing emphasis on presentation skills in business
-upward mobility within companies
- proves languages are dynamic
What was the original hearth area of the Proto Balto-Slavonic speakers?
In and around the Pripet Marshes (spread west, north, and south)
Which is the most numerous of the Indo-European groups?
Slavic (about 270 million speakers)
Which is one of the smallest of the Indo-European groups?
Baltic (only a few million speakers)
Name two reasons for which there is differentiation in the Balto-Slavonic language.
- Divergence and isolation
- Religious influence
The Baltic group became separated from the Slavonic group around 1000 BCE. It spread in what two directions?
westward and northward
By the early Middle Ages, the Baltic group had split into what two groups?
- Western group (Old Prussian)
- Eastern group (Latvian and Lithuanian)
Western group of Baltic speakers were attacked by eastward moving Germans and absorbed or exterminated in the name of Christianity.
Drang nach Osten
Which type of speakers were the last to undergo divergence?
Slavonic speakers
Into what three main groups did Slavonic speakers diverge?
Eastward, westward, southward
A wedge separated which Slavonic speaking group from the others?
Separated south from the others
What extended the influence of western Christianity in Slavic lands in the Middle Ages?
Eastward advance of Germans into Slavic lands
What did Cyril (Constantine) and Methodius do?
Since Slavic had no written form, they invented an alphabet for it (Cyrillic alphabet)
Written form of Slavic written in the Cyrillic alphabet (church liturgy and scriptures written in Slavonic)
Church Slavonic
Eventually Church Slavonic dropped in Catholic countries and was replaced by what two things?
- Roman alphabet
- Latin liturgy
Second languages in the Balto-Slavonic region have historically been __ and __. These were replaced by __ during the socialist period after WWII. Since 1991, there was a switch to __ but also a resurgence of __ in some areas.
French and German: Russian; English; German
Effort to make French language instruction free
French Cultural Diplomacy
What is considered Europe's mystery language?
Basque is considered a __, meaning it has no resemblance to languages in neighboring countries (not Indo-European)
language isolate
What are four hypotheses for Basque being Europe's mystery language?
- linked to Etruscans
- from Caucasus (similarities with Georgian language)
- a non-Arabic language from North Africa
- developed “in situ”; and therefore extremely old
Europe has __ official/national standards and __ of regional and local languages
32; hundreds
What are two fundamental attitudes concerning the politics of language?
1) The multiplicity of languages is an evil, and a source of conflict that should be overcome by a universal language, or at least a global auxiliary language.

2) Diversity of languages is a value in itself, similar to biodiversity. Each language has a value in itself, and should be preserved, like a work of art.