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84 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Europe may be described as:
Both physically and culturally diverse
Which of Europe's landscape regions is the most densely populated?
The Northern European Lowland
Von Thunen developed a model of the ideal spatial arrangement of agricultural activities within the isolated state. What did he say would be produced in the ring closest to the city?
Dairy products and vegetables
Which of the following is an example of a centripetal force?
A strong and popular political leader
Which of the following statements would you say best describes Europe's population?
It is mostly urban and there are relatively few children.
A powerful force in Europe today is devolution. What does devolution mean?
That regions within states are gaining strength, demanding autonomy, and may even become independent states
Which of the following statements about the European Union (EU) is correct?
One of the goals of the EU is to establish a single European currency, and to eventually eliminate existing currencies such as the German mark and the French franc.
Which country has the most powerful economy in Europe?
Germany
Which is Eastern Europe's most populous and largest country? (This country was once part of the Soviet Union, it has access to ports on the Black Sea, and has assets that include massive farm production, a skilled labor force, and substantial raw materials.)
Ukraine
Which European country is often described as two countries, the progressive north with a core area centered in the Po River basin, and a sharply contrasting stagnant south?
Italy
What is the latitude of Atlanta, GA?
32 degrees N lat
a system of scientific classification
taxonomy
condition that has to be met
criteria
*when two areas come together
An area of spatial change where the peripheries of two adjacent realms or regions join; marked by a gradual shift
Transition Zones
*Geographic change over time
Term used to describe the far- reaching realignments in global influnce that have occured since 1985.
New World Order
The realms into which the globe is divided can be realigned over time.
Geographic Change
The position or place of a certain item on the surface of the Earth expressed in degrees, minutes, and seconds of latitude, 07-907 N or S of the equator, and longitude, 07-1807 E or W of the prime meridian passing through Greenwich, England.
absolute location
The regional position or situation of a place relative to the position of other places. Distance, accessibility, and connectivity affect relative location.
relative location
A type of region marked by a certain degree of homogeneity in 1 or more phenomena; aka UNIFORM or HOMOGENEOUS region
formal region
sameness, uniformity
homogeneous
completely different; incongruous
hetergeneous
*spatial system, reveals interaction between core and surrounding areas
A region marked less by its sameness than its dynamic internal structure; b/c it usually focuses on a central node, also called nodal region or focal region
functional region
The components and interactions of a functional region, which is defined by the areal extent of those interactions.
spatial system
*area that lies around the core
Literlally, "country behind," term that applies to a surrounding area served by an urban center. The center is the focus of goods and services produced for its ____ and its dominant urban influence as well. In case of a port city it includes the inland area whose trade flows through that port.
hinterland
*large vs. small
Representation of a real-world phenomenon at a certain level of reduction or generalization. In cartography, the ratio of map distance to ground distance; indicated on a map as bar graph, representative fraction, and or verbal statement.
scale
the farther away you have the effect
distance decay effect
gradient effect
structure, form, shape
morphology
*zone of very cold air; comes from Siberia
prevailing winds that blow from the high-pressure area of the polar hinds towards the low-pressure area of the polar front at around 60* latitude.
Polar Easterlies
winds that create intertropical convergence zones
Easterlies (trades)
* 30*N & 30*S
subtropical latitudes (30-35*), where winds are light and weather is hot and dry.
Horse Latitudes
low-pressure area around the equator where the prevailing winds are calm. low pressure is caused by the heat at the equator
doldrums
belt of low pressure girdling the globe at the equator. It is formed by the convergence of warm, moist air from the latitudes above and below the equator
Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)
*human characteristics
the view that the physical environment, rather than social conditions determine culture
ex. hot and humid = more crime
environmental determinism
more of a perspective of what is acceptable today
possibilism
term for concentration
abblomeration
farming; refers to agriculture for their own consumption and family consumption
subsistence
The long-term conditions of aggregate weather over a region, summarized by averages and measures of variability; a synthesis of the succession of weather events we have learned to expect at any given location.
climate
a snapshot view of atmospheric conditions
weather
humid equatorial climates
-high temperatures all year
-heavy percipitation
A climates
Dry climates occur in high and low latitudes
B climates
humid temp. climates
-none suffer climatic extremes or severity
-winters can be cold
-almost all these mid-lat. climate areas lie just beyond the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn (23 1/2*N and S lat.)
C climates
humid cold climates
-humid cold (or snow) climates may be called the continental climates, they seem to develop in the interior of large landmasses
-cold winters and cool summers
-most productive soils lay here
D climates
cold polar climates
-where permanent ice and snow keep vegetation from gaining a foothold, and the tundra have ave. temp. above freezing up to 4 months of the yr.
E climates
highland climates
-unclassified highlands mapped in gray resemble E climates
-high elevations and the complex topography of major mountain systems often produce near Artic climates above the tree line
H climates
A specially transformed map not based on traditional representations of scale or area
cartogram
partials out all of the land not for agriculture
physiological density
A country's population, expressed as an average per unit area, without regard for its distribution or the limits of arable land.
arithmetic (crude) population density
richest soils in the world
alluvial soils
What type of climate is found in the north?
E climate
Literally means landscape description, but commonly refers to the total physical geography of a place; includes all of the natural features on the Earth's surface, including land forms, climate, soils, vegetation, and water bodies.
physiography
for it to occur you have to have transferability, complementarity, and intervening opportunity
spatial interaction
The foundations of a society: urban centers, transport networks, communications, energy distribution systems, farms, factories, mines, and such facilities as schools, hospitals, postal services, and police and armed forces.
infastructure
A politically organized territory that is administered by a sovereign gov. and is recognized by a significant portion of the international community. It must also contain a permenant resident population, an organized economy, and a functioning internal circulation system.
state
Legally a term encompassing all the citizens of a state, it also has other connotations. Most definitions now tend to refer to a group of tightly-knit people possesssing bonds of language, ethnicity, religion, and other shared cultural attributes.
nation
A country whose population possesses a substantial degree of cultural homogeneity and unity. The ideal form to which most nations and states aspire - a political unit wherein the territorial state coincides with the area settled by a certain national group or people.
nation-state
A country's largest city - ranking atop the urban hierarchy - most expressive of the national culture and usually the capital city as well.
primate city
Exists when two regions, through an exchange of raw materials and/or finished products, can specifically satisfy each other's demands.
complementarity
The capacity to move a good from one place to another at bearable cost; the ease with which a commodity may be transported.
transferability
In trade or migration flows, the presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away.
intervening opportunity
A place, usually a port city, where goods are imported, stored, and transshipped; a break-of-bulk point.
Entrepot
A location along a transport route where goods must be transferred from one carrier to another. In a port, the cargoes of oceangoing ships are unloaded and put on trains, trucks, or perhaps smaller river boats for inland distribution.
break-of-bulk
An interior state surrounded by land. Without coasts, such a country is disadvantaged in terms of accessibility to international trade routes, and in the scramble for possession of areas of the continental shelf and control of the exclusive economic zone beyond.
landlocked
What are the two biggest rivers in Europe?
Rhine and Daneau River
Process involving the clustering or concentrating of people or activities.
agglomeration
Deconentration. dispersive, spreading them out
deglomeration
Brought Iron from Poland towards Rhine River and coal was produced = steel
Ruhr Valley
The Industrial Revolution was in which part of Europe?
Western Europe
Why was the Political Revolution so important?
because it leads to what Europe looks like today on the map
self-ruling
people rule themselves
autonomy
A policy of cultural extension and potential political expansion by a state aimed at a community of its nationals living in neighboring states.
irredentism
Forces that unite and bind a country together - such as a strong national culture, shared ideological objectives, and a commmon faith.
centripetal forces
A term employed to designate forces that tend to divide a country - such as internal religious, linguistic, ethnic, or ideological differences.
centrifugal forces
The process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government.
devolution
Region caught between stronger, colliding external cultural-political forces, under persistent stress, and often fragmented by aggressive rivals. Eastern Europe and Southeast Asia are classic examples.
shatter belt
The fragmentation of a region into smaller, often hostile political units.
Balkanization
A venture involving three or more states - political, economic, and/or cultural cooperation to promote shared objectives. The European Union is one such organizations.
supranational
sea filled in to create new land; they help to relieve congestion and housing shortages
polder
What is the largest port in the world and where is it located?
Rotterdam on the Maas River
What vegetation zones are encountered on Austria's Alpine Road?
tundra
The combination of a people's culture (traditions, customs, langauge, and religion) and racial ancestory.
ethnicity
A bounded (non-island) piece of teritory that is part of a particular state but lies separated from it by the territory of another state. Alaska and the US are an ex.
exclave
The internal locational attributes of an urban center, including its local spatial organization and physical setting.
site
The external locational attributes of an urban center; its relative location or regional position with reference to other non-local places.
situation
The process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government.
devolution