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31 Cards in this Set

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absolute direction
direction with respect to cardinal east, west, north, and south reference points
absolute distance
the spatial separation between two points on the earth's surface measured by an accepted standard unit
absolute location
identification of a place by a precise and accepted system of coordinates (sometimes called mathematical location)
relative direction
directional references which are culturally based and locationally variable
relative distance
a measurement which transforms absolute distance into units more meaningful for the space relationship in question
relative location
the position of a place or thing in relation to other places or things
accessibility
the relative ease with which a destination may be reached from other locations; the relative opportunity for spatial interaction (May be measure in geometric, social, or economic terms)
connectivity
the directness of routes linking pairs of places; all of the tangible and intangible means of connection and communication between places
cultural landscape
the natural landscape as modified by human activities and bearing the imprint of a culture group or society; the built environment
formal region
a region distinguished by uniformity of one or more characteristics that can serve as the basis for an areal generalization and of contrast with adjacent areas
functional region
a region differentiated by what occurs within it rather than by a homogeneity of physical or cultural phenomena; an earth area recognized as an operational unit based on defined organizational criteria
globalization
teh increasing interconnection of all parts of the world as the full range of social, cultural, political, economic, and environmental processes and patterns of change becomes international in scale and effect
spatial diffusion
the outward spread of a substance, a concept, a practice or a population from its point of origin to other areas
site
the place wehre something is located; the immediate surroundings and their attributes
situation
the location of something in relation to the physical and human characteristics of a larger region
area cartogram
a type of map in which the areas of the units are proportional to the data they represent; value-by-area map
latitude
the angular distance north or south of the equator, measured in degrees ranging from 0 degrees (the equator) to 90 degrees (the North and South poles)
longitude
the angular distance east or west of the prime meridian, measured in degrees ranging from 0 degrees to 180 degrees
international date line
by international agreement, the designated line where each new day begins; generally following the 180th meridian
prime meridian
an imaginary line passing through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England, serving by agreement as the zero degree line of longitude
azimuthal projection
a map projection based on the projection of teh globe grid onto a plae as teh presumed developable surface (aka planar projection)
choropleth map
a map that depicts quantities for areal units by varying pattern and/or color
conformal projection
a map projection on which the shapes of small areas are accurately portrayed
equal-area projection
aka
equivalent projection
a map projection on which the areas of regions are represented in correct or constant proportions to earth reality
equidistant projection
a map projection on which ture distances in all directions can be measured from one or two central points
flow-line map
a map used to portray linear movement between places; may be qualitative or quantitative
Global Positioning System (GPS)
a method of using satellite observations for the determination of exteremely accurate locational information
globe properties
the characteristics of the grid systemof longitude and latitude on a globe
isoline
a map line connecting points of equal value, such as a contour line or an isobar
scale
in cartography, the ratio between length or size of an area on a map and the actual length or size of that same area on the earth's surface; map scale may be represented verbally, graphically, or as a fraction. In more general terms, scale refers to the size of teh area studies, from local to global
topographic maps
a map that portrays teh shape and elevation of the terrain, often in great detail