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110 Cards in this Set

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What is the EU and what is its purpose?
Supranational organization of 27 countries. Social, environmental, and conomic policies of EU will continue to transform all of Europe during the next decades
Why are environmental issues more severe in the former communist countries?
Environmental issues were not emphasized, laws not enforced, nuclear power plants were poorly built and not maintained
2 Countries with same climate as Indiana
Bulgaria and countries from former Yugoslavia
Most challenging population issue facing Europe today
migration
most striking characteristic of Europe's population growth
slow or even negative natural growth
Guest worker
workers from Greece, Turkey, or southern Italy solicited to work in Germany, France, Sweden, and Switzerland during chronic labor shortages in Europe's boom years
Schengen agreement
EU member countries reduce border formalities in order to facilitate free movement of citizens between member countries
Migration patterns in Europe
from former European colonies in Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean. Recipients - England, France, and Netherlands
What are Europeans doing to protect their urban landscapes?
Skylines - no buildings higher than Eiffel Tower
Religious tensions in Europe
Crusades - Christianity vs. Islam
Catholocism vs. Protestant
Current political tensions in the former Yugoslavia and the Balkans
ethnic fault lines in the Balkans have threatened global stability
Benefits of common currency system in Europe
increased efficiency, helps inflations, standardize wages, transition costs are eliminated
Downsides of common currency in Europe
takes away flexibility of individual countries, and not all EU countries have adopted it.
How has the fall of communism affected those former communist countries economically and socially?
stopped exporting subsidized natural gas and petroleum to eastern Ruope and instead sold it on the open global market to gain hard currency. Eastern Europe countries began redirecting their economies away from Russia and toward western Europe with the goal of joining the EU. Moving from a socialist-based economy of state ownership and control to a capitalist economy predicated on private ownership and free markets
What former communist countries are doing the worst? best? middle?
Western Europe - best. Eastern Europe - worst. North and South - middle
Balkanization
larger states being split up
Cold War
ideological struggle between the US and SU between 1946 and 1991
Collectivization
combining small, privately owned agricultural pacels into large state owned farms
command economy
socialist/communist - all goods and services strictly regulated
continental climate
continental interiors - hot summers, cold winters
Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA)
coordinated economic planning and development between SU and satellite countries in Eastern Europe
Cyrillic alphabet
based on Greek alphabet. Used by Slavis languages. Influenced by the Eastern Orthodox church
Euroland
11 states that have the euro
European Union
supranational organization of 27 countries - agenda of economic, political, and cultural integration
Fjord
flooded, glacially carved valleys
hierarchial diffusion
the spread of an idea or cultural trait through adoption by leaders and othe relite at the top of the social structure. Common for all members of a clan to convert if the leader adopts something new (RELIGION)
Iron Curtain
Winston Churchill, western border of Soviet power in Europe. Berlin Wall
Irredentism
reclaiming lost lands or those inhabited by people of same ethnicity in another state
marine west coast climate
cool summer/mild winters. west coast of continents
Medieval landscape
narrow streets, 3-4 story structures, market square
Mediterranean climate
hot, dry summers. little rain. west side of continents
moraines
hilly - park path of glaciers. Composed of eroded glaciers
polders
agricultural areas along Dutch coast that have been diked and drained
Privatization
moving state-owned firms into capitalist privately owned
Renaissance-Baroque landscape
wide boulevards, large monumental structures (cathedrals, palaces), big houses for the elite
Secularization
away from traditional religious like Protestant and Cathloic
Shield landscape
flat lands of southern Scandinavia, eroded by ice sheets, large expanses of bedrock, little/no soil
Migration patterns in Europe
widespread resistance. without migrants, there would be serious labor shortages. Foregin workers are the target of resentment. Not the historical pattern of population settlement in Europe
Tensions within former Yugoslavia - Serbia, Montenegro, and Kosovo
early 90's civil war broke out in Yugoslavia - countries seceded. Problems currently : regional rivalries, clan feuds, religious intolerance, ethnic cleansing. Kosovo is ruled by the UN and has problems. Tensions with neighboring nations
Effects economically and socially of the fall of communism
economic chaos, industrial production fell 40%, thousands laid off, most countries in transition, unemployment, basic costs are higher
Former Yugoslavia

Balkans
Macedonia, Serbia, Montenegro, Slovenia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia
Former Communist
Macedonia, Servia, Montenegro, Slovena, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Estonia, Lativa, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Albania
Benelux countries
Netherlands, Belgium, Luxenbourg
Scandinavian countries
Sweden, Finland, Norway
Monarchies
Spain, United Kingdom, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxenbourg, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Denmark, Norway, Sweden
Struggling economies
Albania, Bosnia, Croatia, Macedonia, Serbia, Montenegro
When did Soviet Union dissolve?
1991
Why is the Russian Domain grouped together
Russian influence
Why is agriculture limited in Russia
permafrost - unstable, seasonally frozen ground
Where is the best cropland in the Russian domain?
Ukraine and European Russia south of Moscow. Russian Far East - warmer climates and better soils
What environmental issues are present in the Russian Domain?
acid rain, forest damage, radioactive contamination, coastal pollution, polluted rivers, poor urban air quality
Moscow
extends more than 50 miles, population - more than 8.5 million
What is the purpose of the Trans-Siberian Railroad
Connects east and west
How is the population of Russia predicted to change by 2050?
continue to age
What are the languages spoken in the Russian domain?
Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Romanian, Caucasian, Armenian, Finno-Urgric, Altaic, Eskimo-Aletu
Predominant religion in Russian Domain
Eastern Orthodox Christianity
Economy of post Soviet Union Russia
collapse of the communist state transformed planned internal exchanges between Soviet irepublics into less-predictable flows of foreign trade
autonomous areas
minor political sub units created in former SU - recognize special status of minority groups within existing republics
Baikal Amur Mainline Railroad
key central Siberian railroad that parallels Trans-Siberian
Bolsheviks
Russian communists led by Lenin
Centralized economic planning
state sets production targets and controls means of production
Chernozem soils
dark, fertile soil in Southern Russia
Commonwealth of Independent States
former SU republics established in 1992
Cossacks
Slavic-speaking Christians that expand Russian influence
Dacha
Russian cottage used especially in the summer
denuclearization
removal and dismantle of nuclear weapons
Eastern Orthodox Christianity
loose confederation of self-governing churches of Eastern Europe and Russia
exclave
a portion of a country's territory that lies outside of it scontiguous land area
glasnost
political "openness" - Gorbachev
Gulag Archipelago
Soviet area labor camps for political prisoners
Mikrorayons
state-constructed urban housing projects built during the SU era
Perestroika
restructuring during Gorbachev years. Make SU economy more efficient and responsive to consumer needs
permafrost
a cold-climate condition in which the ground remains permanently froxen
Podzol soils
acidic soil, limited fertility, typically found in northern forest environments
Russification
spread Russian settlers and influences to non-Russian areas
Slavic peoples
Eastern Europe and Russia who speak Slavic
Socialist realism
an artistic style - realistic depictions of workers in their patriotic struggles against capitalism
Tsars
authoritarian rulers or Russian empire before its collapse in 1917 revolution
Russia
largest country, spans 11 time zones, struggling to develop a market economy.
Ethnic groups - Russian Tatar, Ukrainian, Cossack, Siberian, Mongolian.
Religion - Russian Orthodox
Language - Russian
Armenia
Ethnicity - Azure, Russian, Armenian
Religion - Orthodox
Languages - Armenian and russian
Economy - 1/2 people live below poverty line
Ukraine
crossroads between Europe and Asia
Ethnicity - Ukrainian and Russian
Religion - Orthodox
Language - Ukrainian, Russian, Romanian, Polish, Hungarian
1/2 people live below poverty
Belarus
Ethnicity - 3/4 Byelorussian, Russian, Polish
Religion - Orthodox
Language - Byelorussian, Russian
Majority of people live below poverty
Georgia
Mediterranean climate
Ethnicity - Georgian, Armenian, Russian, Azeri
Religion - Orthodox
Language - Georgian, Russian, Armenian, Azeri
Economy revolves around Black Sea and tourism
Moldova
Formerly part of Romania before WWII; part of SU after WWII.
Ethnicity - Moldavian and Romanian
Religion - Eastern ORthodox
Language - Moldovan and Russian
Poorest in Europe - 80% below poverty
1st former communist country to elect a president from the communist political party
Kaliningrad
Stalin annexed it at the end fo WWII. Access to Baltic sea.
Challenges - military hardware litters the landscape. Being surrounded by NATO and EU
Economy of Russia
Rates of violent crime increased and risen. Divorce rates - single moms, petroleum pipelines
Chernobyl
catastrophic meltdown in 1986. Reactor burned for 16 days. Thousands died, millions have long-term health problems
Without migrants in Europe the growing economy would have what kind of problem?
significant labor shortages
why is agriculture limited across much of Russian Domain?
permafrost, harsh climate, poor soil, lack of money, environmental problems, industrialized farming
2 minor Indo-European languages
Celtic, Celtic-Breton, Welsh, Gaelic, Irish, Hellenic
What is the legacy of Chernobyl?
nuclear reactor underground that blew up, can't farm, people dying of cancer, contaminated soil, air contaminated from southern Russia to Northern Norway, birth defects
Denotes a political ideology where the nation is defined in terms of ethnicity
ethnic nationalism
give 2 cons for use of Euros
country loses its currency, basic costs higher, takes away individuality, takes away flexibility
widespread movementn away from regular participation and engagement with traditional organized religion
secularization
why does Europe struggle more with immigration that US does?
it's a new issue in Europe, US has a long history of immigration
Reduces border formalities in order to facilitate movement
Schengen Agreement
what is EU and what is its purpose?
supranational union of 27 countries - set aside nationalistic agendas
what important purpose does Trans-Siberian Railroad serve?
connects Europe and Asia
Some historical religious tensions in Europe?
Christianity vs. Islam
RC vs. Prot.
RC vs. Orthodox
Problematic homeland for Jews
Why are foreign workers resented in Europe?
taking away culture, take away jobs, recession, unemployment
2 pros for Euros
no exchange rate, controls inflation, easy
Name 2 Slavic languages
Polish, Slovakian, Czech, Serbia, Croatian-Croatian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Slovenian
Policies or practices aimed at displacing an ethnic group from an area
ethnic cleansing
2 Romance languages
French, Spanish, Italian, Romanian, Portugese
How did Kaliningrad become part of Russia?
Stalin annexed it after WW2 to get access to Baltic Sea
2 Germanic languages
German, English, Dutch, Flemish, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, Icelandic
Why are environmental issues worse in former communist countries
fewer controls under communism, takes money, nuclear power plants poorly maintained
Where is Kosovo?
Servia. Current status - wants to be independent, but is currently a NATO protectorate
How has fall of communism affected Eastern Europe
economic/social/political chaos, high unemployment, privatization has ben difficult, basic costs are higher, religion is back, many churches are being restored
Name 2 tensions that currently exist in Balkans
ethnic cleansing, regional rivalries, clan feuds, religious intolerance