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30 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
earth’s crust and that portion of the upper-most mantle directly below the crust, extending down to about 70km. some sources use this term to refer to the entire earth..
region of the upper most mantle just below the lithosphere; the least rigid portion of Earth’s interior and known as the plastic layer, flowing very slowly under extreme pressure and heat.
An area within the planet representing about 80% of Earth’s total volume, with densities increasing with depth and averaging 4.5g/cm3; occurs between the core and the crust; is rich in iron and magnesium oxides and silicates.
Earth’s outer shell of crystalline surface rock, ranging from 5-60km in thickness from oceanic crust to mountain ranges. Average density of continental crust is 2.7g/cm3, whereas oceanic crust is 3.0g/cm3.
A state of equilibrium in Earth’s crust formed by the interplay between proportions of the lithosphere and the asthenosphere and the principle of buoyancy. The crust depresses under weight and recovers with its removal, for example, the melting of glacial ice. The uplift is known as isostatic rebound.
Magnetic reversal:
A polarity change in Earth’s magnetic field. With uneven regularity, the magnetic field fades to zero, then returns to full strength but with the magnetic poles reversed. Reversals have been recorded 9 times during the past 4 million years.
Elastic Rebound:
A concept describing the faulting process in Earth’s crust, in which the two sides of a fault appear locked despite the motion of adjoining pieces of crust, but w/the accumulating strain they rupture suddenly, snapping to new positions relative to each other, generating an earthquake.
A lahar is a type of mudflow composed of pyroclastic material and water that flows down from a volcano, typically along a river valley.
pyroclastic flow:
are a common and devastating result of some volcanic eruptions. They are fast-moving fluidized bodies of hot gas, ash and rock (collectively known as tephra) which can travel away from the vent at up to 150 km/h.
Composite Volcano:
A volcano formed by a sequence of explosive volcanic eruptions; steep-sided, conical shape.
Shield Volcano:
A symmetrical mountain landform built from effusive eruptions. Typical of the Hawaiian volcanoes.
An interior sunken portion of a composite volcanoes crater, usually steep sided and circular.
Continental Crust
is granite, high in silica, low density, 2.7g/cm3
Oceaninc Crust
is basalt, denser than contental crust, 3.0g/cm3
Three kinds of rocks
igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic
Igneous Rock
molten state, granite, basalt, rhyolite, from magma, 90% earths crust
Sedimentary Rock
involves lithofication, cementation, compaction and hardening, sandstone, shale, limestone, and coal
Metamorphic rock
from parent material, foliated, non-foliated texture
Earth's Age
4.567 billion years
Outer Core
molten metallic minerals, w/light density
Plate Tectonics
include upwelling of magma, lithosphere plate movements, sea floor spreading, earthquakes, volcanic activity
seafloor spreading
builds suboceanic mountain ranges
midoceanic ridges
submarine mnt ranges, upwelling flows of magma, intense hypothermal activity
Divergent Boundaries:
sea floor spreading, occur at mid ocean ridges, spreading apart.
convergent boundaries
collision zones, continental and oceanic lithosphere collide.
transform boundaries
plates slide past one another
Normal Fault
forces pull rocks apart
Reverse fault
rocks move upward
strike slip fault
transform fault, right lateral or left lateral.
Location of volcanos
along subduction zones, sea-floor spreading, hot spots.