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123 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
104) The different spatial distribution of coast redwoods and red maple trees illustrates the operation of
A) competitive exclusions B) symbiosis C) limiting factors D) management through logging
Answer: C
115) In nature, approximately ______ of the calories in plant matter survive from the primary to the secondary trophic (feeding, nutrition) level.
A) 30% B) 10% C) 90% D) 50%
Answer: B
Conjunct
-Melody with notes occuring in small intervals
-distance between pitches
-Close together, narrow
Disjunct
Melody with notes occuring in large intervals
-Wide
Dissonant
Tone that does not sound pleasing
Consonant
Tone that sounds pleasing
Dissononat
tone that does not sound pleasing
Modulation
A change in the tonal center
-Never used in ICM-Raga
Scale
Wat to understand pitches
- a collection of pitches
Pitch
Being in tune
-Music term for frequency
Timbre
specific tone color of a musical sound (quality)
Chord
similar to harmony
What is pitch bending? Which cultures employ it as a standard feature of their music?
- The intermediate sound between pitches "stretching the sound"
- Used in japanese tradiontal music, ICM
What is the "core melody" in a balinese gamelan piece?
- Found in the mid range mettallophones - is the genesis of all other melodic parts.
What is raga?
-collection of pitches but beyond the idea of scales
-every raga has rules as to how the pitches are actaully used in performance
- ever raga has a certain "extramusical assotition, like time of the day, season, or emotions
- ONLY ONE RAGA IS USED FOR EACH PIECE OF MUSIC (ICM, never modulated)
What is a tonic note or tonal center?
-the pitch that has the greatest stability or least tension
Interval
distance between pitches
Meter/timecyle
a cycle of beats
Beat
underlying pulse- not always explicitly given in a piece of music
-not given in icm, japenese
Hocket
Interlocking melodies- by themselves not siginificant- together make melody
-Splitting melodies by splitting on melody
Syncopation
Rhythms not line up with the beat
Polymeter
two different meters happening at the same time
-reciever
Polyrhythm
two unrealted rhythms happening simultaneously
-Reciever
Monophony
one line of music - number of performers doesnt matter
-texture
Polyphony
Multiple, independent lines of music all equally contribute
-texture
Heterophony
twolines-act like a chase scene- often used in icm
Define the phrase "keeping time."
-timekeeping- keep the beat
What instrument is used for time keeping in west african music?
Bell is frequently used to hold an ostinato pattern through the pice
What instrument is used for time keepin in gamelan music?
gogns are used to dive the various beats of the cycle
What instrument is used for time keeping in salsa music?
uses claves (sticks) or metal shell drums (timbales)
Define "free rhythm." In what types of of music do we encounter free rhythm?
- no regular pulse or beat
- occues in tradional japense music, ICM
What is Kotekan, and how/why is it used?
-Kotekan- hocket technique used in gamelan music- includes interlocking parts (one part on beat, one part off beat)
-used to elaborate on the melody
Kriti
devotional song- not performbed by itself but is used as a basis, or core for developing numerous improvisions- perforamnce of kriti may last very long
- instrumental
- set to only one raga, so must know how to improve
Guru
one that teaches the sisya
Sisya
disciple/studen of the guru
Tabla
pair of drums- only placed in North India
Tala
Indian term for meter- ONLY ONE used for a given piece of music
Gamakas
Melodic ornamentation used in ICM
Alapana
common style of improvisation- used by meolodic performers only ( no percussiong)- always before the presention of the kriti- free rhythm
- drone, melody
Bollywood
India's Film industry- much of indian popular music comes from musicals/filsm
What is the function of the drone in ICM?
Does the precense of the drone really creat harmony in this type of music?
- Drone is the constant sounding of the tonal center.-the presence of the drone can help recognize consonance/dissonance between melody/drone
- no harmony
Describe the guru-sisya sytstem
-Very formal- gurus very selective with students- reflects the entire lineaoge of teacing- student becomes disciple only after a period of years (2)
How is kriti normally performed?
-devotional song- often instrumentally- not performed by itself but is used as a basis, or core, for developing numerous improvisation- performance of kriti may last very long (due to improv)
What role does improvisation play in ICM?
- used to embellish kritis- often use alapana (exposition of the raga) to showcase the raga itself and show ability and knowledge of performer
Pan
Steel drums (idiophones) invented in Trinidad
Panorama
Annual steel band competition- only trinidad bands compete- judged on arrangement, general perforance, tone, and rhythm
Lord Kitchener
Most prominent calypso performer- sings about partying and lewd subjects

-career spanned over 60 yrs
Soca
"soul calypso"- almost strictly part music- meant for dancing- often electronically generated msuic- driving bass- fast uses drumset
Calypso
Verbal expression- texts very important- talk about human condition
-from trinidad
Tamboo Bamboo
early step towards pans- used bamboo sticks as percussion
-"bamboo drum"
What are the developments that led to the modernization of steel drum instruments?
-Used wrapped sticks with soft material prduce less harsh tone
- created concave playing surface (bowl like)
- fully chromatic - use of 12 pitches in recognized western music
-
Describe how a panorama arrangement is created and performed
- only Trinidad bands- select a popular tune (calypso) to arrange, peform
- the arranger arranges the tuen and teaches it to the band
- play in front of judges
What role if any, did/do calypsonians play in society?
Perform at panorama, they set up tents for people to listen, there were commerical recordings of the music
Clave
pair of rosewood sticks- often used as timekeepers- can also refer to a rhythm
Mambo
Fast to moderate tempo- based on clave rhythm (2,3 or 3,2)
- features both vocal and instrumental improv
- no guitar, cowbells, congas, etc more common
Bolero
Slow temp- low/high/low pattern on conga drums- not based on clave rhythm- never uses drumset
Cha Cha
Medium tempo- 4 beat cycle- features guiro- never too fast -dance music
Timbales
metal shell drums played with sticks- keep time on metal shell, also use cowbells and cymbals
-2 is the norm, although using more than 2 is possible
Congas
Wood shell drums played with hands
Samba
Street samba- roots in drumming and singing- likely to have guitar strum- meant for dancing
Guiro
scared idiophone- used in cha cha
Reggae
Bouncy feel, offbeats in rhythm section, melodic bass lines
Mento
precursor of reggae- "jamaican calypso"- contributed bouncy feel
- uses banjo
Ska
offbetas in rhythm secion- key to raggae- often instrumental only- fast temp, horns
Rock steady
reaction to ska - slow down tempo- melodic bass lines- return to lyricism
Bongos
Slow-night club music
Define clave dicuss its role in salsa music styles
-3-2 or 2-3 rhythm - dictates every other instrument
How do you tell the styles of mambo, bolera and cha cha apart?
Mambo- moderate to ver fast- features coval

Bolero- slow, low.high/low" on congas- never use drumset

Cha Cha- medium tempo - features the guiro, dance music
What instruments are found in the rhythm section of a salsa band?

In a rhythm section instruments have basically two roles or jobs- what are they?
rhythm section- piano, bass, guita, percussion (sometimes drumset)

- role provides heat, keeps tune, provides harmony
Can you trace the evolution of jamaican popular music in the 20th century?
Mento(1950s)- used bouncy feel

Ska (50s-60s) - influence from US- R&B feel- offbetats in rhytym section- fast tempo- often instrumental

Rock Steady (late 60s)- reaction to ska- slowed down, lysicism, melodic bass line carry to raggae
Mettalophone
metal keyboard- prefferred metal is bronze
Kotekan
hocket technique- one part on beat, one part off, used to elaborate melody
Gong Cycle
Divide the various beats of teh cycle maong the different size gongs
Gamelan
Generic term for musical ensemble- found on java and bali
Describe why metallophones are tuned in pairs. What effect does this produce?
- One of the pairs is purposefully "de-tuned" so each pair is slightly out of tune
- creates a "shimmer" effect throughout the ensemble
Indentify the five layers of musical activity in balinese gamelan music:
1. Drums- lead or condcut- give signals or cues

2. gongs- mark the time cycle by dividing various beats of cycle among different sized gongs

3. High Mettalophones- elaborate the melody often with kotekan

4. Mid " "- core or skeletal melody- genesis for all melodic parts

5. Low " "- slow moving support meolodies (based on core melody)
How is gamelan music taught and leanred
rote learning- formal- observing and imitating
Jeli
part of the nyamalo class- "shaper of sound"- must be born into family- specialize in one of 3 areas (speech, song, instrument)
Master Drummer
Leader of Agbekor- dance drumming- director of group- gives oral cues- improvises if required
Amadinda
East african xylophone- loose key- multiple players- bars struck on edges with wood sticks
Define the term sub-saharan afric" and tell why wuch a term is necessary in discussing the music of africa
all regions south of the Sahara desert
- cultures within Sub-Saharan africa are distinct from those in the northern part of the continent (more like middle east)

- N. Africa culturally has more in common with middle east
Identify and describe the four funtions that instruments serve in a piece of West African dance-drumming (agbekor)
Timekeeper- ostinato pattern throughout piece- use bell often- never improvises

Emphasis of time keeper- use rattle

Supporting Drum- play ostinato- can change rhythm/repeat

Lead drum- director give cues, improvises if required
Breifly dicuss music in Pygmy culture, and explain how their environment and social structure impacts their music making
-Nomadic life style- small, simple instruments, vocal music most important
- egalitarian society- emphasis on group performance
- music unspecialized
What are some of the features of african tradional music
-prefer a high "noise to pitch" ratio
Features syncopation, polyrhythm, ostinatos
- Percussion used for tiem keeping/structural purposes
Ma
an absence of beat- silence or space that adds drama
Isin Densin
"worldess communication" within performers

like eye contact.... important becaue it leaves some decisions until onstage playing
Enka
Sung by middle aged people- melodramatic sappy songs about lost love or mundane life issues
- songs about issues people that age deal with
Kouta
Short song created by female composers- use shamisen to accompany
Shamisen
Wodden sound box- fretless neck allows fore easy pitch bedning- three strings- buzzing timbres
Shakuhachi
end blown flute made of bamboo, orginally played by wondering monks
Tayu
narrotor for banraku theaer- provides voice for each cahracter- performs from a book
Karaoke
significant in japan- group dynamics reinforced- used as an icebreaker, stress reliever
Describe the music of banraku theater
Japanese puppetery
- provided by 3 person team- shamisen- 3 styles of vocal delivery- singing, speaking and half of each
- seated of right of stage
What are the characteristics of japanese traditional music?

How does this music sound compared to western music?
- variety of timbres- unpitched sounds often used (nature sounds)
- no standard tuning system- employs pitch bending
-no hamorny- free ryhthm- use of ma
What impact does karaoke have on japanese society?
-use personal karaoke machines- used as ice breaker and stress reliever
Ethnomusicology
study of non-western music, compartive studies relationship of music to culture
Hornsbostel-Sachs instrument classifcations:

Aerophones
any instument that features a vibrating column of air
-trumpet, organ
Hornsbostel-Sachs instrument classifcations:

chorodphones
instrmnets that feature vibrating strings
-piano
Hornsbostel-Sachs instrument classifcations:

Membranophones
Instruments in which a streched membrane that vibrates
-drums
Idiophones
Instruments in which teh body of the instrument itself vibrates (self sounding instruments)
- wood blocks, bells, steel pan
Seven Music Universals
1. Has vocal music (singing)

2. Employs musical instruments in some way

3. Uses music in ritual or scared events

4. Seperates musical pieces, or selections

5. has some organization of tones or pitches

6. uses music as a way to experience transcendent mood (goosebumps)

7. uses music to reinforce social groups/boundaries/organization
Describe situations where the context of a performance imposes a limition on who may perform (men/women,old/young,pro/amatuer)
-japanese kouta- women only

-Indian raga, Bunraku theater- only trained pros

Jeli- must be born iinto family

-guru-sisya

-conservatories
What does non-western mean?
-western= music stemming from western europe culture

- non western= all other music- may be clasical
What is fieldwork, and why is it a cornerstone of the dsicpline
- immersing yourself in the people/culture for an extended period of time to gain extensive knowledge
- try to gain insiders point of view
-essential credibility
- must have at least 1 year
Describe rote learning. Identify as many situations when it is employed
- observing and imitating to learn- formal- clear who is teaching/learning
-May be in group setting (panorama)
-guru-sisya
-Gamelan-Idonesia
-Essential for credibility
What is enculturation? What type of music did we discuss that is learned in this manner?
Learning through slow absorption without formal teaching
-African music
What are the advantages of learning and performing with notation? Are there any disadvantages to notation?
-Preserves music, makes sharing learning easy
- No flexibility (cant change it_, can easily be interprted wrong
How do the following entities exert control over the dissemination of music (repertoire, technique, other)?
Gurus- guru accepts sisya only after period of years, student not only reflects themselves but also the entire lineage of teaching

- jeli: Must be boring into certain family, string intermarriage, first learn from family memebr than master teacher comes later, exposure to all 3 areas at first then specilize to formal one one student relationship

- Japanese iemoto guilds: certain families control the arts, each musical style or instrument had a guild- preserves integrity of art form- control dissemination and qulity

- Western Conservatories: all collections of old classical music. controls dissemnation because may not allow any new music, dedicated to the preservation and itergrity of their chosen art
Describe the music of banraku theater
Japanese puppetery
- provided by 3 person team- shamisen- 3 styles of vocal delivery- singing, speaking and half of each
- seated of right of stage
What are the characteristics of japanese traditional music?

How does this music sound compared to western music?
- variety of timbres- unpitched sounds often used (nature sounds)
- no standard tuning system- employs pitch bending
-no hamorny- free ryhthm- use of ma
What impact does karaoke have on japanese society?
-use personal karaoke machines- used as ice breaker and stress reliever
Ethnomusicology
study of non-western music, compartive studies relationship of music to culture
Hornsbostel-Sachs instrument classifcations:

Aerophones
any instument that features a vibrating column of air
-trumpet, organ
Hornsbostel-Sachs instrument classifcations:

chorodphones
instrmnets that feature vibrating strings
-piano
Hornsbostel-Sachs instrument classifcations:

Membranophones
Instruments in which a streched membrane that vibrates
-drums
Idiophones
Instruments in which teh body of the instrument itself vibrates (self sounding instruments)
- wood blocks, bells, steel pan
Seven Music Universals
1. Has vocal music (singing)

2. Employs musical instruments in some way

3. Uses music in ritual or scared events

4. Seperates musical pieces, or selections

5. has some organization of tones or pitches

6. uses music as a way to experience transcendent mood (goosebumps)

7. uses music to reinforce social groups/boundaries/organization
Describe situations where the context of a performance imposes a limition on who may perform (men/women,old/young,pro/amatuer)
-japanese kouta- women only

-Indian raga, Bunraku theater- only trained pros

Jeli- must be born iinto family

-guru-sisya

-conservatories
What does non-western mean?
-western= music stemming from western europe culture

- non western= all other music- may be clasical
What is fieldwork, and why is it a cornerstone of the dsicpline
- immersing yourself in the people/culture for an extended period of time to gain extensive knowledge
- try to gain insiders point of view
-essential credibility
- must have at least 1 year
Describe rote learning. Identify as many situations when it is employed
- observing and imitating to learn- formal- clear who is teaching/learning
-May be in group setting (panorama)
-guru-sisya
-Gamelan-Idonesia
-Essential for credibility
What is enculturation? What type of music did we discuss that is learned in this manner?
Learning through slow absorption without formal teaching
-African music
What are the advantages of learning and performing with notation? Are there any disadvantages to notation?
-Preserves music, makes sharing learning easy
- No flexibility (cant change it_, can easily be interprted wrong