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49 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What does limestone consist chiefly of?
calcium carbonate which is insoluble
The carbon dioxide, which rain water absorbs from the air, turns the insoluble carbonate into what?
soluble bi-carbonate
vertical /swallow/ sink holes are formed from what? Give an example of a swallow hole
They are formed by rivers and they are usually widened vertical joints.Eg.Gaping Ghyll in Yorkshire,England
Swallow holes may join together to give a very large opening called a what?
doline
These dolines may join up to give even larger openings. These are called?
uvalas
Rivers which flow inside limestone areas develop what?
underground caves and caverns
Which two things develop in caves and sometimes join together to form natural columns or pillars
stalagmites and stalactites
What forms with vertical sides when the roof of an underground cave or cavern collapses?
a gorge
Give an example of a gorge formed this way
cheddar gorge(U.K)
Limestone landscapes are also called what?
karst landscapes
What is chalk made up of?
calcium carbonate but it is much softer than limestone
What type of rock is chalk?
a porous rock
What happens when rain falls onto chalks surface?
the rain rapidly soaks into the gorund
What are valleys called without streams?
dry valleys or coombs
Give an example of chalk landscape
Chiltern Hills and the Dawns,and in these regions dry valleys are very common
what is weathering
the process by which rocks at or near the earht's suface are broken dowm by differnt agents
give the two types of weathering
mechanical/physical and chemical
Give one major difference between weathering and erosion
during weathering the weathered material is not transported away but in erosion it is transported
the red colour of many soils is due to what?
the presence of iron in them
how do plans weather
their roots grow continuousl spreading over an area of land causing the rocks below to crack and disintegrate
how do animals weather
they burrow through the soil
what do plants produce when they rot
humus
What happens during frost action which is a mechanical form of weathering
This happens in temperate areas. In teh summertime teh rain falls and goes into the cracks. During winter, the water freezes and pressure is exerted on the sides.Cracks start to develop and pieces of the rocks start to break off
What happens during Temperate changes (Exfoliation)
In the day, cracks develop and expand.During the night, the surface layers of the rocks peel off and the rocks contract to form an exfoliation dome which has a smooth surface
the small rocks that fall off of the bigger ones are called what?
screes/talus
Bauxite soil is formed from the weathering of which type of rock
limestone
Give the three types of chemical weathering
hydration, carbonation and oxidation
give one product of weathering
clay
what is hydration?
it is when oxygen or sulphur is combined with water to produce a soluble or weaker mineral
what is the second most abundant mineral on earth
iron
give an example of oxidation
when rails and grills rust
what is mass wasting
the downslope movement of weathered material under the influence of gravity. Eg. landslides, mudflow, and soil creep
what is erosion?
the removal of topsoil by water, wind, ice
give six things that are formed form carbonation
swallow holes, sink holes, caves, cavern, clints and gryke
what is weathering
the process by which rocks at or near the earht's suface are broken dowm by differnt agents
give the two types of weathering
mechanical/physical and chemical
Give one major difference between weathering and erosion
during weathering the weathered material is not transported away but in erosion it is transported
the red colour of many soils is due to what?
the presence of iron in them
how do plans weather
their roots grow continuousl spreading over an area of land causing the rocks below to crack and disintegrate
how do animals weather
they burrow through the soil
what do plants produce when they rot
humus
What happens during frost action which is a mechanical form of weathering
This happens in temperate areas. In teh summertime teh rain falls and goes into the cracks. During winter, the water freezes and pressure is exerted on the sides.Cracks start to develop and pieces of the rocks start to break off
What happens during Temperate changes (Exfoliation)
In the day, cracks develop and expand.During the night, the surface layers of the rocks peel off and the rocks contract to form an exfoliation dome which has a smooth surface
the small rocks that fall off of the bigger ones are called what?
screes/talus
Bauxite soil is formed from the weathering of which type of rock
limestone
Give the three types of chemical weathering
hydration, carbonation and oxidation
give one product of weathering
clay
what is hydration?
it is when oxygen or sulphur is combined with water to produce a soluble or weaker mineral
what is the second most abundant mineral on earth
iron