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24 Cards in this Set

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Weathering
either disintengrates rock into mineral particles or dissolves into h20
bedrock
parent rock from which weathered regolith and soils develop
physical weathering
rock is broken down w.o any chemical change
frost action
C.W, water freezes, expands 9%, breaks rock apart
Crystallization
C.W, dry moisture draws moisture to surface of rocks
Pressure-release joining
sheeting, exfoliation
Chemical Weathering
act. decompostion of chem change
Hydrolysis
decompostion process that breaks down silicate minerals in rocks
basalt weathers faster than granite
Oxidation
when metallic elements combine w. oxygen to form oxides, rusting
Carbonation
minerals dissolves into solution, carbonic acid is strong enough to react w/many minerals especially limestone.
eluviation
process of removal of fine particles and minerals by h20, leaving behind sand, silt
illuviation
depositional, redish, organic oxides
Acid rain
ph 2.0
Oxisols
Tropical soils, most mature, iron, al oxides, leaching soluble minerals. reddish, low in CEC and fertility
Andisols
dry regions, pale, light color, salinization, light color, low in humus
Spodsiols
cool-humid forests, strongly acidic
Mollisols
semi arid, humus rich, base saturation
Diagnostic Horizon
soil below surface
Calcification
a process that produces an illuviated accumulation of CaCO3
-Mollisols, Aridsols
Podzolization
soil acidification
-Spodosols
Salinization
salts in increases POTET
-Arisols
Mass Wasting
general process involved in mass movements and erosion of landscapes
Angle of Repose
angle between 33 and 37 percent
Debris flow
1-10 m/s, can exceed 20 m/s, can travel long distances , low friction