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67 Cards in this Set

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Agriculture
The growing and maintenance of food, plants or animals.
Pastorialism
Breeding and herding of animals to satisfy human needs
Transhumance
movements of herds according to seasons
Commercial Agriculture System
Placed in the core. Profit based.
Subsistence Agriculture System
Placed in the periphery. Growing food for eating,and focused on the needs of the family. Popular in Asia.Survival focused.
Agriculture
The growing and maintenance of food, plants or animals.
Pastorialism
Breeding and herding of animals to satisfy human needs
Transhumance
movements of herds according to seasons
Commercial Agriculture System
Placed in the core. Profit based.
Subsistence Agriculture System
Placed in the periphery. Growing food for eating,and focused on the needs of the family. Popular in Asia.Survival focused.
shifting cultivation
Mostly in Tropical Periphery. Destroyed most of the rainforest
humus
decaying plants, fuel of the rainforests, top layer of the area
plantations
growth of exotic plants. In Central and South America, Africa.
Significant Event in Agriculture: L.A. Purchase
Growth of America in 1803
Significant Event in Agriculture: Railroad Acts
Expanded U.S. to the West of North America
Significant Event in Agriculture: Homestead Act 1862
10% of U.S. land was given away in 160 acre plots. Movie: Far and Away
Significant Event in Agriculture: Township and Range System
Thomas Jeffersons original idea. Creating well defined property. 6x6 miles break into 1x1 mile property
Significant Event in Agriculture: Marril Act
Public Land donated for Colleges educating students about agriculture. Colleges ending in State usually.
Significant Event in Agriculture: Green Revolution
Using technology to help agriculture. Ex. Better breeding methods, better crop yields, better fertilizer.
Father of Agriculture
Dr Norman Borlaug
+ of Green Rev
Food production increases, famine decreases, carrying capacity increases. Core pushed this on periphery.
- of Green Rev
Small Farmers are left out, Hybrid crops are expensive, farm size increases, mechanization increases, commercialization increases, less jobs, less soil fertility, soil and water damaged, lowers prices.
World Food Supplies
High yield, high food value (vitamins, calories, etc), and storage ability (don't die quickly)
5 major crops
3 cereal grains- Corn, Wheat, Rice
2 Tubers- Potatoes, Cassava
Famine
shortage or absence of food within a region due to crop failure, destruction or blocking of food shipments
malnutrition
aka micronutrient deficiencies- not recieving essential vitamins and minerals. can cause blindness, death, a bunch a stuff
DDT
poison supposed to kill insects but it got into water then bugs then fish then birds and made their eggs thing and then they almost became exstinct
What can cause conflict
areas and boundaries that don't take culture into account
4 types of boundaries
Antecedent – a boundary established before modern cultural
landscapes
Canada/U.S. Border
Not likely to cause conflict

Subsequent – aligned with a cultural landscape
Much of Europe
Not likely to cause conflict within borders

Superimposed – not aligned with culture, but created with
geometric aspects
Likely to cause conflict
Africa, drawn by colonial powers

Relic - no longer exist as international borders
Often leave behind a trace in local culture
Example of the reunification of Germany where different levels of prosperity still show between east and west
Nation-State
– geopolitical expression of a politically independent and self-governing group of like-minded people
Nationalism
The feeling of belonging to a nation as well as the belief that a nation has a natural right to determine its own affairs
Centripetal vs Centrifugal
Centripetal Forces – forces that strengthen and unify something
A strong national culture, shared ideological objectives, and a common faith
Centrifugal Forces – forces that divide or pull something apart
Religious, linguistic, ethnic, or ideological differences
Kurdistan
Unofficial "state" where Kurds are. Its by Iraq Turkey and Syria
Balkanization
which means to break up (as in a region) into smaller and often hostile units. Yugoslavia (hostile) Czech (peaceful)
Bosnia War
Former Yugoslavia broken into separate states after 1991
Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia Herzegovina, and Slovenia

Secretly Croatian President, Franjo Tudman and Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic conspired on how to divide Bosnia Herzegovina between them
Serbia wanted areas with Serbians
Croatia wanted areas with Croatians
Bosnians, who many are Muslims, became targets of ethnic cleansing
Zionism
a movement for a separate country, a place safe from prosecution, for Jews in the late 19th century
1880 to 1914 – 60,000 Jews immigrated to Palestine
Six Days War
1967 Egypt, Jordan, and Syria attacked Israel, but Israel defeated them (with the U.S. and Soviets only watching) and grew in size
Creating a State: -Occupation and Conquest
Effective Occupation – use of force to maintain control of land
Conquest – forceful action of taking land
Creating a State: Annexation
– is the legal action of making conquered land part of the state Western Sahara
Creating a State: Voluntary Cession
Passing territory from one country to another by agreement. X-mas Island from Australia
Creating a State: accretion
– the addition of land to a State by natural processes
River boundaries are difficult to maintain due to nature of rivers
Hawaii and Rio Grande River (Chamizal, 1963, El Paso, Texas)
First Nation
Indigenous people
Creating a State: Acquisition of Rights
Transfers of land in the form of leases
Hong Kong
Servitude – restriction on the sovereignty of a State over its own territory
What is the theoretical best shape for a state?
rectangular or circlular
What did C. Etzal Pearcy want to do?
Change the US. To make 38 new states that would be the right shape.
Who was Friedrich Ratzel? What was Lebensraum? How did it relate to Europe?
Friedrich Ratzel (1849 – 1904)
Father of “Political Geography”
Degree in zoology from U. of Berlin 1868
Politsche Geographie 1897
Lebensraum (living space) “The state is an organism fixed in the soil”
State and union of people and land are a superorganism that needs to grow
Expected Russia and the United States to dominate 20th Century due to the fact they had space to grow

Related it to Germany in WWII
Difference between UK's power grabbing and US/Russias? Germany?
UK was very split up. US/Russia had a lot of room. Germans were only focused on growing rather than US/UK focusing on protection.
Who was Alfred Thayer Mahan?
Wrote Influence of Sea Power upon History
Assisted sea transport cheaper and quicker than land transport
Navy essential to protect commerce and for initiating economic sea blockades
Especially for the U.S. and Britain
Who was Halford MacKinder? What was the Pivot or Heartland Theory?
How did it relate to the Cold War and the Domino Theory?
British Scientist. Heartland model. Pivot Area – has a wide range of natural resources and inaccessible to sea power
Most strategically important place in the world
Also Known as the Heartland
World – Island – area surrounding the Heartland that is accessible to sea power

Mackinder’s Heartland Theory
- who controls eastern Europe controls the heartland
- who controls the heartland controls the world
island
- who controls the world island rules the world

This theory captured the attention of U.S. politicians and military
How could maps help promote fear about the Cold War?
They would have russia look much bigger and closer to U.S.
Describe the difference between System of Cities and Cities as Systems?
Brian Berry described Urban Geography as the study of “cities as systems within systems of cities”

1. System of Cities – viewed as nodes or points
Sizes and locations of cities and metropolitan areas
The role of cities in society
Interactions among cities and between cities and their hinterlands or trade areas

2. Cities as Systems – cities viewed as areas or places
Land use patterns within cities
Interactions among people and their land-use activities within cities and metropolitan areas
How have urban population changed from 1800 to 2000 world-wide?
Lots of people had babies in urban areas and an explosion of population occured
CBD
Centrality – idea of a focal point that dictates urban growth
CBD became the focal point
CBD’s function was to perform services for the city and for the people around the city
Describe the difference between System of Cities and Cities as Systems?
1. System of Cities – viewed as nodes or points
Sizes and locations of cities and metropolitan areas
The role of cities in society
Interactions among cities and between cities and their hinterlands or trade areas

2. Cities as Systems – cities viewed as areas or places
Land use patterns within cities
Interactions among people and their land-use activities within cities and metropolitan areas
What are World Cities? Provide examples of Secondary and Primary Cities.
Places where large multi-national corporations are headquartered and manage world-wide operations
High connectivity to the rest of the world

Primary: Chicago, New York, London, LA, Paris, Tokyo

Secondary: Brussels, Houston, Toronto, Miami
What does the Rank Size Rule tell us?
If a city is too powerful or too big. Basically the top city should be 1 2nd 1/2 3rd 1/3 4th 1/4 etc...
What are the characteristics of a Primate City? Provide examples.
A major city that works as the financial, political, and population center of a country and is not rivaled in any of these aspects by any other city in that country

Ex. Sao Palo, Brazil; Lagos, Nigeria; Paris, France

So these are found to be too big because of the Rank Size Rule.
What is the Concentric Zone Model?
The Dart board. Circles inside of Circles.
Sector Model?
Created by Hoyt: Basically a circle but poor do not live directly near rich like in the Concentric zone model. Poor live by manufacturing zones and rich and middle class live by each other.
Multi-Nuclei Model?
9 zones of crazy madness doin what it do.
What is Gentrification?
Wealthy people buying homes in poor communities. This can lead to those poor families getting kicked out.
What is an Ehtnoburb?
suburban residential and business area in North America with a significant concentration of a particular ethnic minority population.
What is the cycle of poverty?
poverty is a repeated cycle of events unless there is outside intervention.
What is dualism?
something with two parts? Say wha
historical events
la purchase
railroad act
homestead
township and range
marril act
green rev
township and....
range system
creating a state
annexation
accreation
acquisition of rights
occupying/maintaining