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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is the science that onvolves studying the origin, evolution, shape, and spatial distrubution of land forms and is a major study area in physical geography
what is any process that wears away or rearranges landforms in connection with the movement of water, air, waves, and ice and in response to gravitational forces acting on the earth's land surfaces
5 principal denudation processes include
weathering, mass movement, erosion, transporation, deposition
the .... of streams is the level velow which a stream can't erode its vally any further
base level
the term ... refers to sea level meaning that sea level is the lowewst practical level for all denudation processes
ultimate base level
what refers to the balance of force, form, and process
dynamic equilibrium
what describes cooperating processes that balance the effect of tectonic uplifet and removal of surface materials by weathering and erosion, and the resisitance of rocks to continuous wearthering and erosion processes
dynamic equilibrium model
a .... is the point where there is enough energy to overcome the resisitance against movement.
geomorphic threshould
material on slops is loosened by....
what are the 3 forces other forces that act on a slope
friction, inertia, and cohesion
what can also occur under the force of raindrops, animals or wind, which may dislodge weathered or loose material from the slope and make it aavailable for downslope movement
what are curved, inclined surfaces that form the boundaries of landforms.
what are the 4 key features of a slope
1. upper waxing face
2. free face
3. debris slope
4. waning slope
which slope is near the top, convex surface
upper waxing face
which slope is a steep face or cliff, often associated with an outcrop of resistant rock that forms a steep scarp or cliff
free face
whcih slope receieves rock fragments and materials from the upper parts of the slope
debris slope
which slope is below the debris slope
waning slope
what refers to a condition in which friction, inertia, cohesion, and gravity are in balance
angle of equilibrium
what refers to a group of processes that cause surface and subsurface rocks to breakdown and disintergrate into individual mineral particles or to dissolve in water.
what is the parent rock from which soil and regolith develop
what is the unconsolidated (loose) layer of material on or near the surface
the parent material of soil forms from highly fragmented material called ... and combines with regolith
what 3 rates is wearthering controlled by
1. climatic elements and regional climate conditions
2. presence, position, fluctuation of water table
3. aspect (orientation) of exposed slope relative to sun ange, precipitation, and wind
what type of weathering refers to the mechanical breakdown of rocks and disaggregation of mineral or rock particles from the parent rock and no chem. alteration
physical weathering
what changes the state of the rocks by alternate expanion (freeze) and contraction (thaw)
frost action
what is the physical weathering process where minerals in rock take in water and these rocks become weaker
what creates arch-shaped and dome-shaped features on the landscape
pressure-release jointing (exfoliation)
what physical process forms crystals and is like how ice forms and breaks down rock
what occurs when water penetrates joints and factures in rock and dissolves the materials that cememnt individual moneral grains together
spheroidal weathering
what occurs when water penetrates joints and fractures in rock and dissolves the materials that cement individual moneral grains together
spheroidal weathering
what are the 3 chemical processes
hydrolysis, oxidation, carbonation and solution
what applies to all movements of materials down a slope under the force of gravity
mass movement
what are the 4 mass movement classes
falls, slide, flow, creep
which mass movment class is a quantity of rock that falls through the air and hits a surface below it.
what is a fast-moving, mass of falling and tumbling rock, debris, and soil..sometimes snow, ice and water mixes
debris avalanche
which mass movement class involves the sudden rapid movement of a cohesive mass of unsaturated regolith or bedrock, often involving large amounts of material that falls and slides sumultaneously
which mass movement class occurs in material with HIGH moisture content and is often saturated
which mass movement class is a persistent mass movement of suraface soil that is common in environments where ground goes through cyclic freezing and thawing
soil creep
what is a slow mass movement process that occurs in wet to saturated material (creep category)
what is the scarring of landscape by people