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28 Cards in this Set

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Four units of time from biggest to smallest
Eon, era, period, epoch
Last three era's and first Eon
Cenozoic, mesozoic, paleozoic, Precambrian
Age of earth, percent of time in past three eras
4.6 bil, 1.4% cenozoic, 4 mesozoic, 6.3 paelozoic, 88.3 precambrian
Dating
two types
Relative – sequence, leads to stratigraphy, based on fossils
Absolute – number of years, based on radiometric dating
Fundamental principle in geologic time scale is:
uniformitarianism
“the same physical processes active in the environment today have been operating throughout geologic time
in cooling, elements sorted by
density, iron to middle, silica to top
Layers going in
lithosphere, asthenosphere, upper mantle, lower mantle, outer core, inner core
make up of upper and lower mantle, outer and inner core
olivine, silicate minerals
olivine iron magnesium silicates
liquid molten iron
solid iron
lithosphere is?
Crust and uppermost mantle
two discontinuities?
Mohorovicic crust/mantle
gutenbert mantle/core
two types of crust and props
continental: lighter thicker
oceanic denser thinner
isostasy?
buoyancy and balance of crust on liquid inner earth
More weight above pushes crust into uppermost mantle and it into
sedimentary are what % of crust and surface, igneous are what %
sedimentary are 5% of crust and 75% of surface, igneous are 95% of crust and 25% of surface
classification of intrusive
I. pluton: any intrusive
A. batholith: largest
B. magma conduits
1. sills: parallel to sedimentary
a. laccolith: lens shaped sill
2. dikes: form across sed layer
one type of extrusive, intrusive
basalt, granite
two types of igneous by composition
felsic: feldspar and silica, lighter less dense
mafic: mg and ferric, darker and denser
four kinds of sedimentary rock and root material
sandstone, shale: mud, limestone: little animals, coal: plants
lithification
process of compaction, cementation, and hardening of sediments, also chemical prepitation
two types of sedimentary and formation
clastic: transported rock fragments
chemical: precipitates of minerals: limestone
foliated:
metamorphic rock that shows patterns or lines from particular alignment of minerals
5 metamorphic transformations
shale ->slate
granite/shale/slate -> gneiss
basalt/shale/peridotite->schist
limestone/dolomite->marble
sandstone->quartzite
Alfred Wegner came up with: 2
continental drift
pangea
scientific evidence of both
plate tectonics make
volcanic activity
upwelling of magma
crustal plate movement
crustal changes
earthquakes
subduction of crust
sea floor spreading
seafloor spreading dated by?
magnetic orientation of new crust
which goes under when ocean hits continent crust?
ocean bc its denser
two parts of geologic cycle
exogenic: tearding down powered by solar energy
endogenic: building up, internal heat powered
at least how many plates
14
fracture zone
fracture fault
moving in same direction
different directions