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62 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
wastage of a glacier that occurs when large pieces of ice break into the water
belt of higher ground paralleling a meandering alluvial river on both sides of the stream channel and built up by deposition of fine sediment during periods of overbank flooding
patterned ground
ground surface bearing polygonal or ring-like features, including stone circles, nets, polygons, steps and stripes, including ice wedge polygons, typically produced by frost action in cold climates
soil, regolith, and bedrock at a temp lower than O degrees celcius or 32 degrees F, found in cold climates of arctic, subarctic, and alpine regions
conspicuous conical mound or circular hill, having a core of ice, found on plains of the arctic tundra where permafrost is present
pocket or region within permafrost that is unfrozen, ranges from small inclusions to large "holes" in permafrost under lakes
active layer
shallow surface layer subject to seasonal thawing in permafrost regions
tundra (arctic) variety of earthflow in which sediments of the active layer move in a mass slowly downhill over a water-rich plastic layer occurring at the top of permafrost, makes solifluction terraces and solifluction lobes
glacial moraine
accumulation of rock debris carried by an alpine glacier or an ice sheet and deposited by the ice to become a depositional landform
gaping crack in the brittle surface of a glacier
bowl-shaped depression carved in rock by glacial processes and holding the firn of the upper end of an alpine glacier
alpine glacier
long, narrow mountain glacier on a steep downgrade, occupying the floor of a troughlike valley
large natural accumulation of land ice affected by present or past flowage
circular or closed-loop coral reef enclosing an open lagoon with no island inside
accumulation of yellowish to buff-coloured, fine-grained sediment, largely of silt grade, upon upland surfaces after transport in the air in turbulent suspension (like in a dust storm)
desert pavement (eolian)
surface layer of closely fitted pebbles or coarse sand from which finer particles have been removed
belt of low, flat ground, present on one or both sides of a stream channel subject to innundation by a flood about once annually and underlain by alluvium
oxbow lake
crescent-shaped lake representing the abandoned channel left by the cutoff of an alluvial meander
cutting-through of a narrow neck of land, so as to bypass the stream flow in an alluvial meander and cause it to be abandoned
braided stream
stream with shallow channel in coarse alluvium carrying multiple threads of fast flow that subdivides and rejoin repeatedly and continually shifts in position
raising of stream channel altitude by continued deposition of bed load
point bar
deposit of coarse bed-load alluvium accumulated on the inside of a growing alluvial meander
volume of flow moving thru a given cross-section of a stream in a given unit of time, commonly given in cubic meters (feet) per second q=wdv
recurrence interval (RI)
RI=n+1 over m.
where RI=rec. intervals in years
n=# of years of record
m=rank of flood
extremely slow downhill movement of soil and regolith as a result of continued agitation and disturbance of the particles by such activities as frost action, temp. changes, or wetting or drying of soil
chemical weathering
chemical change in rock-forming minerals through exposure to atmospheric conditions in the presence of
water, mainly involving oxidation, hydrolysis, carbonic acid action, and direct solution
physical weathering
produces regolith from massive rock by action of forces strong enough to fracture rock
E.G.frost action, salt-crystal growth, unloading, wedging by plant roots
AKA mechanical weathering
slope processes
mass wasting/movement. transportation controlled by gravity, unless water is involved, then it is a fluvial process.
EG. falls, slides, flows, creeps
fast movement of material, not associated with water
rock fall
rocks falling through air, resulting landform is talus slope
types of slides:
translational slides:one layer of rocks slides over another, often accompanied by a rotational slump.
rotational slump: surface block moves along a concave surface
saturated material, flows as a fluid, increased % of water equals decreased viscosity
debris avalanche
combination of a fall, flow, and slide. free falling and tumbling across a steep surface at very high speeds, made of mix of soil, rock, ice water, etc. if all snow then snow avalanche
dry, unconsolidated material, in rocky, mountainous areas, accumulations of mass-wasted materials at bottom of slope, generally at angle of repose, 35 degrees
factors altering slope stability:
weathering-breaks down cohesion, reduces angle of repose
joint spacing
downslope dip less than slope angle
water-positive pore pressures, increase weight of soil
more flows
earth flows-20% gravel, slower than debris flow
mudflow-mud, silt, and clay
lahar-volcanic debris flow-from rain and pyroclasts
alpine debris avalanche
mix of snow, ice, rock
effect of dams on fluvial processes:
control floods, provide water for irrigation, allow for carry-over storage from snow melt into summer, alter timing of water discharge
material permeable and porous enough to yeild water to springs or wells, unconsolidated sediments esp. alluvial sands and gravels make excellent aquifers
deranged drainage system
disorderly drainage pattern formed in a recently glaciated area, irregular direction of stream flow,few short tributaries, swamps, and many lakes
Mississippi River
1993, serious flood, occurred in midsummer, triggered by succession of unprecedented rainfalls in upper Mississippi Basin, monthly rainfall totals highest in years, as water drained from landscape, Mississippi and its tributaries rose, creating flood of turbid water, river went over levees and flooded floodplains, some classed flood level as 500 year level
glacier ice
very compact and dense, air bubbles trapped in ice crystals,
snow line or firn line
line above which snow remains during year due to temp and accumulation
wastage of glacial ice by both melting and evaporation
equilibrium line
no net gain or loss, may be at or slightly below snow line
movement of glaciers
if accumulation zone present glacier moves forward, snout may advance, retreat, or remain stationary
3 processes glaciers move by:
internal deformation, ice fractures, basal sliding
glacial deposit till
sediment deposited directly by glacier ice, either supra-glacial-gravels and boulders, angular, or sub-glacial mixture
glacial fluvial deposits
from meltwater streams at sides or fronts of glacier, sorted sands and gravels, almost no clay or silt
glacial lacustrine-marine
terminus of glacier in or near standing water, sorted sands, silts, and clays
sediment deposit built by a stream entering a body of standing water and formed of the stream load
point bar
where alluvium accumulates as a long, curving deposit of sediment, widening of this deposit creates crescent shaped area of low ground, first stage of floodplain development
cut banks
when meanders develop narrow necks, which are cut through by water, thus shortening river course and leaving a meander loop abandoned, then sand and silt is deposited across ends of abandoned channel, which makes an oxbow lake
where soil particles rest and accumulate at base of eroding slope
any stream-laid sediment deposit
stream's carrying capacity
maximum load that can be carried by a stream at a given discharge is a measure of the stream capacity, capacity increases with increase in velocity because more intense turbulence
form when a graded stream slowly cuts away the alluvial fill in its valley, steplike alluvial surfaces on both sides of valley, good for agriculture and towns, easily tilled
layers of snow in the process of compaction and recrystallization
alpine glacier
ice accumulates in cirque, flows downhill, abrading and plucking down bedrock
continental glaciers
huge glaciers that cover moderately sloped areas of land
glacial outwash plain
smooth, sloping plain lying in front of ice margin, formed from stratified drift left by braided streams issuing from the ice, built of layer upon layer of sands and gravels
deposit of sand and gravel laid on the floor of the former ice tunnel from large stream in glacier. form ridges after ice has melted away.