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81 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a social system and folding a set of beliefs and practices through which people seek Carmine with the universe and attempt to influence the forces of nature, life, and death.
a religion that actively seeks converts and has the goal of converting all humankind.
Proselytic religions
a religion identified with a particular ethnic or trouble group; does not seek converts.
ethnic religion
the worship of only one God
monotheistic religions
the worship of many gods
polytheistic religions
religions, or strands within religions, that combine elements of two or more belief systems.
syncretic religions
a strand within most major religions that emphasizes purity of faith and does not open to blending with other religions.
orthodox religions
-- a movement to return to the founding principles of religion, which can include literal interpretation of sacred texts, or the attempt to follow the ways of a religious founder as closely as possible.
an area occupied by people who have something in common culturally; or a spatial unit of functions politically, socially, or economically as a distinct entity.
culture regions
the spread of elements of culture from the point of origin over an area
cultural diffusion
the artificial landscape; the visible human imprint on the land
cultural landscape
people who believe that in inanimate objects, such as trees, rocks, and rivers, possesses souls.
a focused geographic area were important innovations are born and from which they spread.
culture hearth
the spread of religious believes by personal contact
contact conversion
the unique way in which each culture uses its particular physical environment; those aspects of culture that serve to provide the necessities of life -- food, clothing, shelter, and defense.
adaptive strategy
the study of the influence of religious belief on habitat modification
a philosophy proposing that the earth was created specifically as the abode for humans, that the earth belongs to humans by divine intention.
the theory that there is one interacting planetary ecosystem, Gaia, that includes all living things and land, waters, and atmosphere in which they live; further, Gaia functions almost as a living organism, acting to control deviations in climate and to correct chemical imbalances, so as to preserve earth is living planet.
Gaia hypothesis
a journey to a place of religious importance
in area recognized by a religious group as worthy of devotion, loyalty, esteem, or fear to the extent that it becomes sought out, avoided, inaccessible to the nonbeliever, and/or removed from economic use
sacred spaces
-- a mutually agreed upon system of symbolic communication that has a spoken and the usually a written expression.
a distinctive local or regional variant of a language that remains mutually intelligible to speakers of other dialects of that language; a subtype of a language.
a composite language consisting of a small for vocabulary borrowed from the linguistic groups involved in international commerce
a language derived from a pidgin that has acquired a fuller vocabulary and become the native language of its speakers
an existing, well-established language of communication and commerce used widely where it is not a mother tongue
lingua franca
The ability to speak two languages fluently.
a group of related languages derived from a common ancestor.
language families
a mixture of different languages
the border of usage of an individual word or pronunciation.
words and phrases that are not part of a standard recognized vocabulary for a given language but that are nonetheless used and understood by some of its speakers
the zone of great cultural complexity containing many small cultural groups.
shatter belts
in area protected by isolation or inhospitable environmental conditions in which a language or dialect has survived.
linguistic refuge areas
a person who speaks only one language
a place name, usually consisting of two parts, the generic and the specific.
the descriptive part of many place names, often repeated throughout culture area.
generic toponyms
a classification system that is sometimes understood as arising from genetically significant differences among human populations, or visible differences in human physiognomy, or as a social can structure that varies across time and space.
prejudice and hatred towards people of other races
a group of people who share a common ancestry and cultural tradition, often living as a minority in the larger society.
ethnic group
the adoption by an ethnic group of enough of the ways of the host society to be able to function economically and socially.
-- the complete blending of an ethnic group into the host society, resulting in the loss of all distinctive ethnic traits.
the study of the spatial and ecological aspects of ethnicity
ethnic geography
-- a sizable area inhabited by an ethnic minority that exhibits a strong sense of attachment to the region and often exercises some measure of political and social control over it
ethnic homelands
a small ethnic area in the rural countryside; sometimes called of a "folk island."
ethnic islands
regional cultural distinctiveness that remains following the assimilation of an ethnic homeland.
ethnic substrate
a voluntary community are people of like origin recited by choice.
ethnic neighborhood
traditionally, an area within a city where an ethnic group was, either by choice or by force. Today in the United States, the term typically indicates an impoverished African American urban neighborhood.
the tendency of people to migrate along channels, over a period of time, from specific source areas to specific destinations
chain migration
a type of ethnic diffusion that involves the voluntary movement of a group of migrants back to its ancestral or native country or Homeland.
return migration
the process by which immigrant ethnic groups lose certain aspects of their traditional culture in the process of sailing overseas, creating a new culture that is less complex than the old.
cultural simplification
a complex of adaptive traits and skills possessed in advance of migration by a group, giving them survival ability and competitive advantage and occupying the new environment.
cultural preadaptation
poor or inadequate adaptation that occurs when a group pursues an adaptive strategy that, in the short run, fails to provide the necessities of life, in the long run, destroys the environment that nourishes it.
cultural maladaptation
customary behaviors associated with food preparation and consumption
food ways
the cultivation of domesticated crops in the raising of domesticated animals.
a type of agriculture characterized by land rotation, in which temporary clearings are used for several years and then abandoned to be replaced by new clearing; also known as "slash and burn agriculture."
swidden cultivation
the practice of growing two or more different types of crops in the same feel that the same time.
farming to supply the minimum food and materials necessary to survive
subsistence agriculture
the cultivation of rice on the paddy, or small flooded field and close by mud dikes, practice in the humid areas of the far east.
paddy rice farming
harvesting twice a year from the same parcel of land.
double cropping
a former belonging to a full culture and practicing the traditional system of agriculture.
a system of monoculture for producing export crops requiring relatively large amounts of land and capital; originally dependent on slave labor
plantation agriculture
a large landholding devoted to specialist production of a tropical cash crop.
farming devoted to specialist fruit, vegetable, or vine crops for sale rather than consumption.
market gardening
in American commercial grain agriculture, a farm on which no one lives; planting and harvesting is done by hard migratory crews
suitcase farm
a commercial type of agriculture that produces fattened cattle and hogs for meat.
livestock fattening
a factory like farm devoted see either livestock fattening or carrying; all feet is imported and no crops are grown on the farm.
highly mechanized, large-scale farming, usually under corporate ownership
a member of a group that continually moves with its livestock in search of forage for its animals
nomadic livestock herders
farming in fixed and permanent fields.
sedentary cultivation
the commercial raising of herd livestock on a large landholding
the raising of food, including fruit, vegetables, meat, and milk, inside cities, especially common in the Third World.
urban agriculture
the killing of wild game and harvesting of wild plants to provide food and traditional cultures.
hunting and gathering
a plant deliberately planted intended by humans that is genetically distinct from its wild ancestors as a result of selective breeding
domesticated plants
an animal kept for some utilitarian purpose whose breeding is controlled by humans and whose survival is dependent on human; domesticated animals differ genetically and behaviorally from wild animals.
domesticated animal
the recent introduction of high-yield hybrid crops and chemical fertilizers and pesticides into traditional Asian agricultural systems, most notably paddy rice farming, with attendant increases in production and ecological damage
Green Revolution
the expenditure of much labor and capital of the piece of land to increase its productivity. In contrast, extensive agriculture involves less labor and capital.
intense agriculture
the raising of only one crop on a huge tract of land in agribusiness
plants whose genetic characteristics have been altered through recombinant DNA technology.
genetically modified crops
the cultural landscape of agricultural areas
agricultural landscape
the shapes form by property borders; the pattern of land ownership.
cadastral pattern
a pattern of original land survey in an area.
survey patterns
a small rural settlement, smaller than a village.