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57 Cards in this Set

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Geography
the study of the spatial organization of human activity and people's relationships with their environments.
Place
specific point on the Earth distinguished by a particular character (absolute, relative, cognitive)
Scale
way of partitioning, describing space
Region
area on Earth distinguished by a distinctive combination of cultural and physical features
Networks
connections between people, places, spaces, and regions
Culture
way of life, values, learned collective human behavior (not inborn)
OR
process of constructing and participating in social life
OR
negotiation of shared values
Cultural interactions
power and money
Cultural landscapes
respresentations in art, film, etc
Cultural ecology
relationships between environment and human communities
Coercive power
use of force, conflict, violence to influence people or institutions
Symbolic power
non-violent production and imposition of legitimate visions of the world
Three forms of power
political, economic, cultural/social
Culture wars
battles between those using cultural power (coercive & symbolic)
Class
group of people who have a similar social status
Caste
born into social class
Discourse
articulating a vision of the world, version of reality through language
Culture region
geographical unit based on characteristics and functions of culture
Formal culture region
area inhabited by people with common cultural trait(s)
Functional culture region
area organized to function politically, socially, or economically
Territoriality
fundamental human desire to belong to a large group that controls its own piece of Earth
Nation
people of common heritage, culture, or language
State
political unit
Nation-state
nation that achieves independence
Imperialism
exercise of military power and economic influence by powerful state to advance their national interest
Colonialism
form of imperialism that establishes rule by a sovereign power over a foreign population through the establishment of settlements
Political system
government
Economic system
used to secure resources to meet needs
Democracy
political power in the hands of the people through elected representatives
Dictatorship
people are ruled over by one person or small group

EX - Pakistan and Burma
One-party rule
single party dominates government/no other parties allowed

EX - Cuba, China, Egypt, Iraq, Zimbabwe, Brunei, Monaco
Monarchy/Theocracy
authority vested in rules through association with religion or royal family

EX - Iran, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Morocco, Bahrain
Failed state
governmental collapse

EX - Angola, Liberia, Afghanistan, Somalia, Deomcratic Republic of Congo
Dependent territory
area or region claimed by another nation-state or country

EX - Greenland (Colony of Denmark), Puerto Rico (US), French Guiana (France)
Core
WORLD SYSTEM

dominates trade, controls technology, wealthy
EX - Europe and US
Periphery
WORLD SYSTEM

dependent on core, low level of technology
EX - Central Asia, Most of Africa, Parts of S. America
Semi-perphery
WORLD SYSTEM

transitional between core and periphery
EX - Australia, Asia, Central, South America
Economic Sectors:
Primary
agriculture, resource extraction
Economic Sectors:
Secondary
industry, manufacturing
Economic Sectors:
Tertiary
sale and exchange of goods and services
Economic Sectors:
Quaternary
handling/processing of information
Globalization
interconnectedness of world through economic, environmental, political, and cultural change
Nationalism
feelings of belonging to a nation that has the natural right to determine its own affairs
Neo-colonialism
economic and political strategies by which powerful states indirectly maintain or extend their influence over other ares or people
Cultural imperialism
promoting the culture of one nation in another, especially weaker nations
Economic development
processes of change involving the nature and composition of a particular region as well as to increase the overall properity of a region
GDP
gross domestic product - total goods produced by a country
GNP
gross national product - value of income abroad
PPP
purchasing power parity - how much of "basket of goods" can be consumed per capita
Gini formulation
degree of inequality in country
HDI
human development index - quality of life through education, income, longevity
UNDP Gender Empowerment Index
income/work/seats in parliament
Supranatural organization
collection of individual states with a common goal (economic or political) (ex. - UN, IMF, NATO, Group of 8)
Group of 8
supranational group - Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, UK, US = 67 percent of world's income
OPEC
Oil producing countries including Middle Eastern countries, Indonesia, Nigeria, Algeria, Venezuela
IMF
184 countries seeking to "secure financial stability," reduce poverty by promoting globalization, free market/founded 1990
WTO
139 countries agreeing to promote prosperity with trading rules (1995)
Sovereignty
ability to be self-governing, independent