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159 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Primary economic activity
using natural resources: farming, fishing, lumbering, mining
Secondary economic activity
changing natural resources into new products: manufacturing, refining, etc
tertiary economic activity
services provided for others in exchange for money or product: banking, nursing, teaching
quaternary economic activity
Economic Activities composed entirely of services rendered by white-collar professionals working on management and information processing and disseminating
Least cost theory
Alfred Weber, posits that agriculture and industry locate their activities as close to their markets as possible, thereby achieving the least cost of transport for the goods they produce
an extended city or town area comprising the built-up area of a central place (usually a municipality) and any suburbs or adjacent satellite towns
Substitution principle
focused on the substitution of a product,service or process to another that is better for the environment while retaining the same functionality
Western civilization
refer to the societies of Western Europe and their close genealogical, linguistic, and philosophical colonial descendants, typically included are those countries whose dominant culture is derived from European culture
The tidal mouth of a river
Break of bulk point
a transfer point on a transport route where the mode of transport (or type of carrier) changes and where large-volume shipments are reduced in size. For example, goods may be unloaded from a ship and transferred to trucks at an ocean port
A fine, wind-deposited sediment that makes fertile soil but is very vulnerable to water erosion
often called an ice age, is a geological phenomenon in which massive ice sheets form in the Arctic and Antarctic and advance toward the equator
Glacial deposition
Process of offloading rock and soil in glacial retreat or lateral movement
river system
River plus its tributaries
a river that branches off from a major river before it reaches the sea, particularly in a river delta
Guest workers
Workers encouraged to come to industrial and agricultural centers that were not able to meet the labor needs with domestic populations
Technological unemployment
Supplanting of workers by technology
A relatively homogeneous cultural group (a nation) with its own political territory (the state)
A venture involving three or more national states; political, economic, and/or cultural cooperation to promote shared
Term used to refer to this process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and autonomy at the expense of the central government
What are factors in the industrial location decision?
Transportation costs, location of raw materials, and labor costs
Primary economic activities…
exist to feed and supply
Most European countries have little interest in preserving their individual cultures. T/F
The European Monetary Union decreases the economic freedom of its members. T/F
Agglomeration occurs when a substantial number of enterprises cluster in the same area. T/F.
Intensive agriculture, large cities, and major industrial regions is the unquestionable focus of which region?
European Lowlands
Which of the following pairs of region and climate type is correct?
Atlantic coast/marine climate
In which region of Europe are environmental conditions the worst?
Eastern Europe
What is a polder?
A diked agricultural settlement in the Netherlands
What agreement established the EU?
The Maastricht Treaty
What term has evolved to describe the fragmented geopolitical processes involved with small-scale independence movements and the phenomenon of mini-nationalism as it develops along ethnic fault lines?
Which of the following pairs of countries was at the heart of the Cold War?
The former Soviet Union and the United States
Which of the following describes the natural growth rate of Europe?
Slow rate of growth
Which of the following is Europe's most densely settled and most highly urbanized region?
Western Europe
The Basque language is identified most strongly with which of the following countries?
Chernozem soils
A Russian term for a dark, fertile soil, often associated with grassland settings in a southern Russia and Ukraine
Trans-Siberian Railoroad
Key southern Siberian railroad connection completed during the Russian Empire (1904) that links European Russia with the Russian Far East terminus of Vladivostok
Imagined Community
The Imagined Community is the concept strongly supported by Benedict Anderson which states that a nation is socially constructed and ultimately imagined by the people who perceive themselves as part of that group.
A policy of the Soviet Union designed to spread Russian settlers and influences to non-Russian areas of the country
Idea of states breaking apart due to certain political forces
A program of partially implemented, planned economic reforms (or restructuring) undertaken during the Gorbachev years in the Soviet Union. Designed to make the Soviet economy more efficient and responsive to consumer needs.
Relict boundary
a boundary that ceases to exist, however the imprint of the boundary still remains on the cultural landscape
A cold-climate condition in which the ground remains permanently frozen.
Superimposed boundary
a boundary imposed on the territory of one nation that divides the members of the nation into two different states. Such boundaries are always unstable
A policy of greater political openess initiated during the 1980's by Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev.
Antecedent boundary
a boundary that was created before the present day cultural landscape developed
Islamic fundamentalism
A movement within both the Shiite and Sunni Muslim traditions to return to a more conservative, religious-based society and state. Often associated with a rejection of Western culture and with a political aim to merge civic and religious authority
Subsequent boundary
boundaries drawn across territory already settled by two different nations which attempts to separate the nations into different states
International organization
boundaries drawn across territory already settled by two different nations which attempts to separate the nations into different states
Supranational organization
Governing bodies that include several states, such as trade organizations, and often involve a loss of some state powers to achieve the organization's goals
an organized political community, occupying a territory, and possessing internal and external sovereignty, that enforces a monopoly on the use of force
analyses geography, history and social science with reference to international politics
all humans are divided into groups called nations
What physical feature marks the eastern edge of European Russia?
Ural mountains
The city of Chernobyl is well known because it is…
the site of the world's worst nuclear accident
Eastward movement of Russians into Siberia…
was encouraged by Stalin
What is the most important source of international tension between Ukraine and Russia?
The Crimea
Russia has the closest ties with what country?
Historically, human settlements in Russia usually centered on major rivers. T/F
Environmental regulations in Russia rival the stringency of environmental regulations in the US and western Europe. T/F
Nations are a natural phenomena. T/F
The main architect of the Soviet Union was Mikhael Gorbachev. T/F
The highest population densities in Russia are found in…
the westernmost part of the region
What country in Central Asia was not a republic of the FSU?
What is the world's largest lake?
Caspian Sea
What was the common language of Central Asia in the 1970's?
The war in Afghanistan…
resulted in Taliban control of most of the country in 1997
Of all of the Central Asian countries, which one has the worst overall composite record of social indicators?
Central Asia does not have access to an ocean. T/F
T/F It is relatively easy to transport Central Asian oil to Europe.
T/F. The CIS has developed into an entity with substantial political and economic power.
The Caspian Sea…
is substantially threatened by oil-industry pollution
Where are the desert regions of Central Asia mostly located?
Antropogenic landscape
A landscape heavily transformed by human agency
Central place theory
A theory used to explain the distribution of cities, and the relationships between different cities, based on retail marketing
The philosophical system developed by Confucius in the sixth century B.C.
Ideographic writing
Pictographic characters grouped together to create new concepts; typical of Chinese writing
A member of the high-level bureaucracy of Imperial China (before 1911). Mandarin Chinese is the official spoken language of the country, and is the native tongue of the vast majority of people living in north, central, and southwestern China.
Special Economic Zones (SEZs)
Relatively small districts in China that have been fully opened to global capitalism.
Sediment load
The amount of sand, silt, and clay carried by a given river.
Pollution exporting
The process of exporting industrial pollution and other waste material to other countries. Pollution exporting can be direct, as when waste is simply shipped abroad for disposal, or indirect, as when highly polluting factories are constructed abroad.
Urban primacy
A state in which a disproportionately large city, such as London, New York or Bangkok, dominates a country's urban system and is the center of that country's economic, political, and cultural life.
Mahayana Buddhism
, originated in the Indian subcontinent, and some of the areas in which it is practiced today are India, China, Tibet, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, and Taiwan
Feng shui
ancient Chinese practice of placement and arrangement of space to attempt to achieve harmony with the environment that has its origins from Taoism
Similar to GDP, buti s a somewhat broader measure that includes the inflow of money from other countries in the form of investments, as well as the outflow to other countries for the same purposes.
Total value of goods and services produced within a given country or geographical unit in a single year.
What is the most populous region in the world?
East Asia
What environmental hazard is the most serious in Japan?
Korea is located on which type of landform?
What is the primary objective of China's Three Gorges Dam?
Control rivers and produce electricity
Which country in East Asia has resorted to pollution exporting as one means to improve its environment?
What is an anthropogenic landscape?
A landscape that has been heavily transformed by human activiites
Which countries in East Asia are known for their urban primacy?
South Korea and Taiwan
Which philiosophies or religions occupies a significant position in all of the societies of East Asia?
What has been the consequence of China's one-child policy?
Average fertility level has declined to 1.8, number of baby boys far outweighs the number of baby girls, gender-selective abortion has emerged, and baby girls may be abandoned at birth
was independent for most of the first half of the 20th century.
Which country had the highest purchasing power parity in 1996?
Hong Kong
The Great Leap Forward…
led to a major famine
Chhina's political and economic power have been growing faster than Japan's T/F.
Much of Japan is deforested due to a lack of conservation measures T/F.
Since the end of the Korean War, North Korea has had stronger economic growth than has South Korea T/F.
Squatter settlements; polluted regions that are found on the outskirts of South Asian cities.
Green Revolution
the increase in food production stemming from the improved strains of wheat, rice, maize and other cereals in the 1960s
Dravidian language
family of languages includes approximately 26 languages that are mainly spoken in southern India and Sri Lanka
Caste (varna) system
Socioeconomic system for which Hinduism is founded on
Grameen Bank
An organization that provides low-interest loans to people willing to attend classes on various subjects, including money management
n Indo-European language spoken mainly in North, Central, and West India, is the official language of the Indian Union
Linguistic nationalism
Linking of a specific language with certain nationalist goals
A tense nuclear standoff exists between…
India and Pakistan
What country is the most isolated country in South Asia?
Where do the Himalyan Mts lie?
north of South Asia
Which country in South Asia is an island?
Sri Lanka
Which climatic factors dominates South Asia?
About what percentage of people in South Asia live in cities?
About 25%
What best describes the outcome of the Green Revolution?
An agricultural success but an ecological and social failure
Which region in India is considered to be India's breadbasket, that is, its greatest agricultural productivity?
Which religion dominates in India?
What religion dominates in Pakistan and Bangladesh?
Sikhism is a blend of which pairs of religions?
Hinduism and Islam
What groups of people are at the top of the Hindu caste (varna) system?
Brahmans (priestly caste)
India's economy is most advanced in which areas?
Software development
The Buddha…
eventually converted to Hinduism
Migrants who move to escape environmental stress are placed into what category?
Pacific Rim
a political and economic term used to designate the countries on the edges of the Pacific Ocean as well as the various island nations within the region
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
In 1995 established free and open trade and investment between member states by the year 2026
Australia-New Zealand-United States (ANZUS)
Pacific-oriented defense and security agreement; security alliance between Australia and NZ
Ring of Fire
a zone of frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions that encircles the basin of the Pacific Ocean
Violent wind-and-rain storms
the conversion of forested areas to non-forested
Wallace's Line
a hypothetical boundary that separates the zoogeographical regions of Asia and Australasia
Native Australian people
Indigenous New Zealand people
Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN)
Organization to strengthen economic and security interests; coalition was formed in 1967 to promote regional trade and minimize alignment with the two world superpowers, the US and Russia
Primate cities
A single, large urban settlement dominates all others; Bangkok, Jakarta, Manila
Doi moi
name of Vietnamese open economic system
Crony capitalism stations
Phenomenon when corruption added to the potential for economic crisis as insolvent companies were propped up with infusion of cash from sympathetic politicians
Name for Aborginie ranch hands
Rain shadow
a dry region on the surface of the Earth that is leeward or behind a mountain with respect to the prevailing wind direction
Cyclonic (frontal) precipitation
The Associal of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)…
Fosters regional cooperation in order to control, rather than be controlled by, external global forces
What makes the physical environment of Southeast Asia unusual?
It is known for its rugged terrain and many islands.
What does Wallace's Line explain?
Why large animals are found in one part of Malaysia and marsupials are found in another part of the region.
Convectional precipitation results when moving air strikes a topographic barrier. T/F
Trade winds are the most significant variable in determining temperature. T/F
Most of the Chinese communities in Southeast Asia are relatively prosperous. T/F
Crony capitalism occurs when the friends of a country's leader are granted huge sectors of the economy while those perceived as enemies have their property expropriated (taken). T/F
Plantation agriculture in Southeast Asia…
now often focuses on speciality crops
What activity has placed the greatest pressure on the forests of Southeast Asia?
International commercial logging
What agricultural pattern is sometimes referred to as slash-and-burn agriculture?
swidden agriculture
What landform and/or vegetation pattern dominates Australia?
What types of animals are most closely associated with Australia?
What term refers to a combination of sandy islands, barrier coral reefs, and a shallow central lagoon?
Maoris are the indigenous people in which of the following countries?
New Zealand
What country in Australia and Oceania are the most urbanized?
Australia and New Zealand
What is New Zealands most important livestock?
What pattern of trade most accurately describes Australia and Oceania over the past 30 years?
Weakening ties with Great Britain and Europe; strengthening ties with Japan, East Asia, the Middle East, and the US.
In general, where would you expect to find the least amount of rain?
anywhere in Samoa
What is not a major characteristic of Australia and Oceania?
relatively untouched by Europe
Much of New Zealand is dominated by…
volcanic mountains