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33 Cards in this Set

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Hydrologic Cycle
A series of storage areas interconnected by various transfer processes, in which there is a ceaseless interchange of moisture in terms of its geographical location and its physical state.
Evaporation
Process by which liquid water is converted to gaseous water vapor
Transpiration
The transfer of moisture from plant leaves to the atmosphere
Precipitation
Movement of water from the atmosphere to the Earth's surface via various forms
Infiltration
Downward movement of water into the soil and regolith
Runoff
Flow of water from land to the oceans by overland flow, streamflow and groundwater flow
Initial Abstraction
That portion of the precipitation that does not infiltrate, evaporate or runoff. "Short-term" ponding of water in depressional areas
Weathering
The physical (mechanical) and chemical disintegration of rock that is exposed to the weather (elements)
Salinity
A measure of the concentration of dissolved salts
Waves
Change in the shape of the ocean surface, with little actual displacement of water.
Currents
Considerable movement of water mainly in the horizontal direction
Tides
The rise and fall of coastal water levels caused by the alternate increasing and decreasing gravitational pull of the moon and the sun on varing parts of the Earth's surface.
Spring Tide
A time of maximum tide that occurs as a result of the alignment of the sun, moon and Earth
Neap Tide
The lower than normal tide variations that occur twice a month as the result of the alignment of the sun and moon at a right angle to one another
Glacier
A large natural accumulation of land ice that flows either downslope or outward from its center of accumulation
Ice Sheet
A vast blanket of ice that completely inundates the underlying terrain to depths of hundreds to thousands of feet
Ice Cap
A small ice sheet, normally found in the summit area of high mountains
Ice Pack
The extensive and cohesive mass of floating ice that is found in the Arctic and Antarctic Oceans
Ice Shelf
A massive portion of an ice sheet that projects out over the sea
Ice Floe
A mass of ice that breaks off from larger ice bodies and floats independently in the sea. Generally, ice flow refers to a large, flattish, tabular mass of ice.
Iceberg
A great chunk of floating ice that breaks off an ice shelf or the end of an outlet glacier. Generally, iceberg refers to a chunkier more rugged piece of ice.
Permafrost
Permanent ground ice or permanently frozen subsoil
Lake
A body of water surrounded by land
Swamp
A flattish surface area that is submerged in water at least part of the time, but is shallow enough to permit the growth of water-tolerant plants, predominantly trees.
Marsh
A flattish surface area that is submerged in water at least part of the time, but is shallow enough to permit the growth of water-tolerant plants, predominantly grasses and sedges
Unsaturated Zone
The topmost zone within the ground, which contains a fluctuating amount of moisture in the pore spaces of the soil. Also sometimes referred to as either the "Vadose Zone" of "Zone of Aeration"
Saturated Zone
The second hydrologic zone below the surface of the ground, whose uppermost boundary is the water table. The pore spaces and cracks in the bedrock and regolith of this zone are fully saturated.
Aquifer
A permeable subsurface rock layer that can store, transmit, and supply water
Unconfined Aquifer
A saturated grologic layer that is permeable enough to allow water to flow fairly easily through it, with a confining bed that restricts further downward movement. This type of aquifer typically consists of both saturated and unsaturated zones
Aquitard/Aquiculde
An impermeable rock layer that is so dense as to exclude water
Confined Aquifer
The third hydrologic zone below the surface of the ground, which contains two or more permeable rock layers into twhich water can infiltrate and is separated from the unsaturated zone by impermeable layers. Water in a confined aquifer can be under pressurized conditions
Artesian Well
The free flow that results when a well is drilled from the surface downward into a confined aquifer and the confining pressure is sufficient to force the water to the surface without pumping
Subartesian Well
The free flow that results when a well is drilled from the surface downward into a confined aquifer and which requires artificial pumping to raise the water to the surface because the confining pressure forces the water only partway up the well casing.