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37 Cards in this Set

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What causes ice sheets to expand and ablate at timescales on the order of 10,000 to 100,000 years?
Albedo
2. What does it mean to “force” climate change
factor outside of the earth's system causes climate change
3. A single vertically explosive volcanic eruption can change climate in which of the following ways?
It adds sulfur to the atmosphere which blocks reflects sunlight and causes global temps to drop
4. How does silicate rock weathering affect climate over time?
It traps CO2 which would lower the temperature
5. What factors may have triggered the Cenozoic icehouse?
The Tibetan Plateu formed, sink CO2 and other uplift and weathering. Seafloor spreading, volcanic eruptions
3 timescales of climate change
tectonic, orbital, and millenial
early sun relative to today
weaker sun in past
snow ball earth
600-700 mya, runaway albedo, detected through low latitude and low alt tillites
What temp was Earth over most of its history relative to today
warmer
11. How were Milkanovich’s ideas of the timing and causes of orbital cycles tested?
Delta 18 0 of foram. Nik Shackleton and others tested by measuring variation in O in foram tests from many oceanic locations.
12. Where did the initial meltwater from the Wisconsin Glaciers initially drain?
Lake Agassiz to North Atlantic
cause of younger dryas
changes of meltwater from gulf to north atlantic changed ocean currents
increase diff btwn summer and winter temps
obliquity
15. What has been the dominant period of glacial cyclicity over the past ¾ of a million years?
100,000 years
which of the following would encourage growth of glaciers
precession, less degree of tilt
17. Which of the following controls the date (location in our orbit) at which seasons change?
precession
18. What is the primary cause of climate change over tectonic time scales?
plate tectonics, atmospheric composition
19. What climate shift contributed to the loss of Viking colonies in North America and Greenland?
The Little Ice Age
20. How does ice volume impact CO2 solubility in the worlds ocean?
As temperature increases CO2 becomes more soluble. More ice the less soluble CO2 is.
21. Match the orbital parameter to its corresponding periodicity:
Eccentricity -
Precession –
Obliquity (axial tilt) –
98,000 year cycle
23,000
41000
number of icehouse modes
5 major and one minor
what triggered the first known ice house
weak sun, addition of CO2 by life, oxidation of methane
24. Which location would be the best for measuring late Holocene sea surface temperature using oxygen isotope data from mollusk shells?
Peru
25. What type of proxy was used to measure past seasonal rainfall in what is now Turkey?
Freshwater mollusk, lake
26. How did climate change in Scotland during the Roman Warm Period?
1 degree colder winters than the late 20th century winters and colder summers than now
27. About how many hothouse periods have there been in the Phanerozoic (since the Cambrian)?
More than a dozen (Kidder and Worsley) ~15
28. What are marine oxygen isotope stages?
Alternating warm and cool periods in Earth’s Paleoclimate
29. What factors may help solve the “faint young sun paradox”?
Earth may have had a similar atmosphere to Venus(which stores majority of carbon in atmosphere). Increased tectonic activity leads to uplift and new land, leading to increased weather. Weathering traps CO2 in resultant sedimentary rocks.
30. What is El Niño?
Oceanic circulation in the Pacific Ocean at irregular intervals ranging for 2-7 years warming period. Changes trade winds, cold water has long journey, then heats up the water, take time for winds to strengthen again and return to normal
31. How has El Niño frequency changed over the Holocene?
Began in the mid-holocene and has increase frequency since.
32. What is the meaning of “precision” in a scientific measurement?
The degree to which repeated measurements under unchanged conditions show the same results.
33. How is precision typically assessed in scientific methods such as radiometric dating or stable isotope analyses?
The standard deviation of bell curve proxy data.
34. When testing Milankovitch’s ideas about orbital cycle and glacier expansion and retreat, scientists used only deep ocean, bottom dwelling foraminifera for oxygen isotope analysis. Why?
Methane hydrate is located in the deep ocean.
35. How might melting (ablation) of methane hydrate (also called methane clathrate) have led to climate change?
Melting of CH4 leads to increase in CH4 gas which leads to increased warming
36. How have scientists measured past major methane hydrate ablation events?
Ice cores
37. What does empirical mean?
Based on concerned with, or verifiable by observation or experience rather than theory of pure logic.
38. Which of the following is NOT a major cause of climate change in the past?
Atmospheric composition, noise in the system, albedo, orbital variation, tectonics, polar heat transport, and the sun are major causes of climate change.