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180 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the principle source of all erosion and sedimentation?
Water Distribution
Name the paths of water
-Plant transportation
Power is derived from what?
sun and gravity
When water moves, it transfers what?
Energy and materials as well
What is Runoff?
When a portion of rain flows on the earth surface
A portion of rain soaks into the ground
surface water evaporating
the release of water vapor to the atmosphere by plants
All the water cycles together are called what?
Although water constantl moses through all phases, each _____ remains stable?
runoff flowing in broad, think seets across the ground
Sheetflow coalesces into___?
Rills coalese to form what?
streams and rivers
Reynolds Number
how much sediment a flow can carry
The measure of how much a stram bed frops in altitude over a given distance, the steeper, the more rapid the flow
Channel shape does what to flow?
Flow varies between the middle and edge(friction) narros streams have mroe rapid change in flow
The amount of water flowing past a defined point in a given length of time
Discharge is never ____.
Rain is not always ___ or ___.
Constant, predictable
AS discharge increases, so does what?
Depth, width and velocity
What effects discharge?
The entire river course, headwaters doen to mouth
What is Erosion driven by?
river flow
Rivers will do what?
erode downwars, diminsishing their gradient, until they reach base level
Base level
The level below wich a stream cannot erode
What do streams carry?
-Dissolved load
-Suspended load
-Bed load
Bed load
sediment mvoed along the bottome of a stream by movign water, or particles moved along the ground surface by wind
Dissolved load
The portion of a stream's load carried in solution
Suspended load
the fine sediemtn carried within the body of flowing water or air
Most dissolved material comes from what?
Chemican pollution is often ___.
Suspended sediment is ____ and requires _____.
Vissible, turbulence
Large particles are bounced along the bottom of what?
As energy level drops, ____ deposits.
Alluvial deposits
-Braided streams
-Fans and Deltas
Streams usually create their own ____.
Rapid downward erosion leads to what? What is this called?
Narrow valleys, Downcutting
Older rivers have already cut their ___ and now meander which results in____?
grade, widening the valley
When discahrge increases to where the channel cannont contain the water
100 year floods
a 1 in 100 chance of a flood od this size occuring
Regional floods
Affects a large drainage basin, often seasonal due to snow melt ot monsoon
Flash flood
rapid flood, more common ater saturating rain in steeo terrain
Costal floods
storms and surges
Natural levees are a product of what and protection from what?
human factors, floods
Human and natural levees will eventually ___.
Plant removal slows what?
Pavement alters what?
Pavement alters runoff because .......
-Less water is absorbed into sediements in sotrms
-Less groundwater formation
-Less groundwater input into streams during dry periods
-Increased flash floods
-No sedimetn filtering of pollutants
Water found in the pores of soil and sedimetn, plus narrow fractures in bedrock
22% of our use of groundwater
freshwater withdrawls
37% of our use of groundwater
-agricultural use(mostly for irrigation)
-public water supply withdrawls
51% of our use of groundwater
drinking water for the total population
99% of our use of groundwater
drinking water for the rural population
As an erosional agent, dissolving groundwater produces what?
Sinkholes and caverns
Naturally formed underground chamber or series of chambers most commonly produced by solution activity in limestone
Ground water serves as a ____ of streamflow.
The crust is ____.
Water that enters as precipitation is ____ and____ where?
moved and stored, underground
What is the largest avaible source of freshwater?
In Alabama, groundwater moves aproximently how much on average?
An inch a day
Where does groundwater originate?
a percentage of rain is absorbed underground depending on surface sediemtn, type, pores, cracks, etc.
Belt of soil moisture
a zone in which water is held as a film on the durfavce of siold particles any may be used by plants or withdrawn by evaporation; not ground water--> soil water
Zone of saturatoin
the zone where all open spaces in sediment and rock are completly filled with water
Zone of saturation is not held as...
soil moisture percolates downard
Saturation zone
when all open spaces in sediment and rock are filled with water
Water table
the upper limit of the cone of saturation
Water table vaires with ___ and ___.
Input and output
Water table generally follows____ in many cases.
What can be used to map water tables?
Wells or geophysical data
Swamps, lakes and streams usually intersect what?
The water table
A "gaining" stream
is at or below the water table and takes water from the ground
a "losing" stream
streams that lose water to the groundwater system by outflow through the streambed
percentage of total colume of rock or sediemnt that consists of pore spaces
the ability of a material to transmit a fluid
and impermaeable layer that hinders or prevents water movement (often clay)
permeable rock strats or sediemtn that transmits groundwater freely (often sands and gravel)
a measure of a material's ability to transmit water
All water moves what way?
down gradient, not necessarily downhill
Velocity is dtermine by what?
The slope of the table between two points
where a water tbale intersects the surface
Deep aquifers are ____ and result in what?
heated, hot springs
a human-made groundwater conduit
Artesian Wells and Springs
Some streams occur under pressure and most wells have to be pumped to the surface
Groundwater as a nonrenewable source
Aquifer recharge may be so slow that it is essentially stoped
Ground sinks when water is pumped faster than recharge
Excessive groundwater withdrawl casues ____ to be drwan into wells.
Saltwater intrusion is a problem where?
In coastal areas and will soon cause troubles in Alabama
Groundwater contamination
-sewage (may be purified if it passes slowly)
-Highway residues and salts
-Chemican and industrial materials
Finding and cleaning problems of groundwater contamination is a major aread of _____.
Groundwater dissolves _____ and creates what?
Rocks- sinkholes, caves and caverns
A type of topography fromed on soluble rock primarilly by dissolution and is characterized by sinkholes, caves and underground drainage
Groundwater repersents what?
Possibly the most critical water source that humans rely on
Groundwater is a keyfactor in what process?
a thick mass of ice that originates on land from the accumulation, compaction, and recrystalization of snow
Glaciers are central to what?
The Earth's climate, sea level, water cycle and rock cycle
a mountain valley
-high altitude
-fast moving
Ice sheets
-all altitudes
-slow moving
Glaciers are up to ____ meters think in Antartica.
___% of the worlds ice is from?
Antartic Ice Sheet
Antartice ice sheet is __ of Earth's freshwater.
two thirds
The Antartice ice sheet covers____.
One and one-half times the area of the US
If the Antartice ice sheet melted, sea level would rise how much?
60- 70 meters
Glaceirs from in areas where....
more snow falls in the winter than melts during the summer
What controls ice?
Summer heating- not winter
What are the steps in the formation of galcail ice?
-Snowfalls and accumulates with air pockets
-Snowflakes become smaller, thicker and more spherical
-Air is forced out
Granular recrystalized snow. A transitional stage between snow and glacial ice.
Once the thickness of the ice and snow exceeds __ meters, what happens?
50, firn fuses into a solid mass of interlocking ice crystals- galcial ice
What causes Ice to move?
Ice movement behaves like a river of ice(plastic), sometimes ____ and ___.
Brittle and breaks
Basal Slip
Bottom of galcier slips along, Meltwater facilitates this
Rates of glaciers vary according to what?
slope and other factors
Glaceirs can move up to __ meters a day.
2, most are far slower
Glacier movement is ___ and ___.
Episodic and Rapid- surges
Zone of accumulation
More ice is added than melted
Zone of Wastage
More ice is melted or lost than added
Climate point
Point of equilibrium and moves as climate changes
Glaciers are a massive source of what?
Erosion of galciers do what?
-Plucks rocks from surface
-Abrades rock sometimes down to "rock flour"
-Striates bedrock
What type of unique features to glaciers create?
-U-shaped valleys(troughs)
-Hanging valleys
material that is deposited directly by the ice
Since galciers leace such unique features and rocks, it has long been kown that galciers were once what?
Far larger than now
We are now in a ___ of an ice age.
Warm phase within a cold cycle
How many major cold periods where there?
Long term cahnges of glacers are due largely to what?
Variation in greenhouse gasses and tectonics
Shorter ice ages (100,000 yrs and less) are caused by what?
Changes in our orbit
Orbital variations do not casue a change in what?
total heat in a year
Orbital variations change what?
seasonal intensity
Warm summers prevent what?
Ice advances
Ice contains what?
Data on climate change
What tells us of past temperatures and precipiatation patterns?
H and O isotopes
Dust chemistry tells us of what?
Hot air is ___ dense than cold air.
Coriolis Effect
Wind moves from hihg pressure areas to los pressure areas and the path of this wind apperas curved due to the Earth's rotation
Coriolis Effect is not a ___.
Equator gets mose sun, so it is a...?
quasi-permanent low pressure zone
Poles get the least sun making it?
High pressure
Our weather is driven by what?
southerly lows and northerly highs
Southerly lows and northerly highs create what?
Jet stream
Quasi stable pressure zones lead to what?
Trade Winds that lead to ocean currents and climate patterns
Dry regions cover __% of Earhts land surface.
2 climatic types of dry regions?
-Desert or arid
-Steppe or semiarid
Dry lands are concentrated into what 2 regions?
Low-latitude and Middle latitudes
Desert Pavement
Larger clasts left behind due to wind and sometims cemented by evaporates
Crossbeds form on the __ of dunes?
Wind direction is perserved in what?
Sediementary rocks
Tidal bulges are caused by what?
Gravity of the Moon and to a lesser extent the sun and centrifugal forces
Spring Tides
Occur druing new and full moons, very high and low tides and a large daily tidal range
Neap Tides
Occur during the first and third quarters of the moon when gravitational forces of the moon and sun are offset, least daily tidal range
Factors that influecne tides?
Shape of the coastline and configuration of the ocean basin
Diurnal Tidal Pattern
a single hihg tide and a single low tide each tidal day
Semidiurnal tidla pattern
2 high tides and 2 low times each tidal day
mixed tidal pattern
larfe inequality in high water heights, low water heights or both
Flood current
Advances into the coastl zone as the tide rizes
Ebb Current
Seaward-moving water as the tide falls
Tidal flats
areas affected by tidal currents
Alabama has ___ tides.
On the Atlantic, tides get ___ the nearer you are to the ___.
Larger, Georigia Bight (9-10 ft or so twice a day)
All water heads to what?
The Ocean
Coriolis effect and friction cause what?
Most weater to move about 90 degres relative to wind
Hot water is transported ___ and cool ater towards the ___.
poleward, equator
East Coast are ___ and west coasts are ___.
warm, cold
Geostrophic flow affects?
Middle Depths
Thermohaline circualtion affects?
Deep water
Surface circualtion cause what?
water to pile up in the middle of the ocean, 2m higher in the middle than on the edges
Cold salty water is ___ than warm salty water.
Deep water must return to the surface and can take uo to 2000 yrs
top of the wave
Low area between waves
Wave height
distance between a trough and crest
horizontal distance between crests
Wave of Oscillation
Wave enrgy moves forward, not the water itself, occurs in open and deep water
Wave of Translation
begins to form in shallower water when the water-depth is about 1/2 the wavelenght and the wave begins to to "feel bottom"
Sand movement is?
Perpendicular to shorline
area exposed at low tide
landward of the high-tide shoreline
Built to maintain or widen beaches
Hydrocarbon compunds
Derived from the ramins on marine plants and animals
Oil trap
A geological enviromatn that allows economically significatn amounts of oil and gas to accumulate
Estimates based on stratigraphy and structure
All oil exploration is found in what type of rock?
Metallica minerals that can be mined