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17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the benefits of the human genome project?
-allows rapid mapping of dissease genes (through comparative genomics)

-helps discover new genes

-helps suggest candidate genes and genetic markers for cloning disease genes

-Sequence of the DNA may facilitate finding identifying mutations responsible for disease

-technology advance
bioinformatics - computer programs to organize and access the data
automoation - high throughput technology and robotics
nanotechnology - getting useful data from really small amounts of material
computer programs to organize and access the data
getting useful data from really small amounts of material
4 limitations of the HGS and how each was overcome
1. problem is that only 5% of the genome actualy encodes genes

-answer use a computer program to predict where the exons are

2. problem we don't know what the function of the gene is

-ans: do experiments on model animals

3. how do we figure out the significance of noncoding info

-ans: use comparative genomics because often conserved in other animals

4.sequence doesn't reveal info about gene expression patterns

ans: use a microarray - gene expression array to establish which gene expression profiles or signatures for normal tissu functions or disease states
What is gene expression profiling?
-using a computer model to separate patients into diff prediction outcomes (calculate SURVIVAL OUTCOME)

e.g. Non-hodgekins' lymphoma
-used to measure gene expression
-often using a full length cDNA chip or an oligo chip
-BY detecting the quantity fo fluorescent molecules attached at one spot, one can infer the relative abundance of the complementary mRNA molecules.

-each gene expression array is a grid consisting of thoughsands of distinc cells with probes from diff genes
Advantages of Microarrays (and a disadvantage )
-fast efficient can do 20,000 genes in 4 weeks
-comprehensive - can put entire human genome on one plate
-easy -submit RNA samples to a core facility
-flexible, can change the array so that is taylored to your specific experiment

question frequently addresed using microarrays
-to look at gene expression
and to compare NORMAL cells to DISEASED cells

(ie. use two samples one from normal (green) & one from diseased (red). red regions means really only expressed in diseased state, green means really only expressed in normal state, yellow means expressed in both).
explain use of microarrays for non-hodgekins lymphoma
-use a lympho chip -contains genes expressed in lymphoid cells

-used to distinguish between two morphologically indistinguishable patients with non-hodgekins lymphoma that have very different predictated disease state outcomes
Where do ES cells come from?
-can be isolated from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst

-can also be harvested from adult tissue (but these are scarcer and have less potential than embryotic stem cells & they are scarcer and harder to find
What are the promises of stem cell research?
-drug toxicity testing -

-gene control studies - basically loss of function and gain of function studies

-tissue replacement therapy with the possibility of a renewable source of replacement tissues - the promise of an unlimited supply of tissues to replace disease tissues
cells harvested from the placenta are ...
adult stem cells - weird to think about
what diseases could be effected by stem cell replacement therapies?
-muscular dystrophy
-sickle cell disease
-heart disease
-spinal cord injury
what are the major problems with tissue cell replacement therapies?

potential solution
-donor recipient compatability and graft rejection

-potentially solving
-have a gene bank
- genetic modification of stem cells to improve compatibiilty
-therapeutic clong - nuclear transfer to alleviate compatibility problems
-therapeutic cloning -
-therapeutic cloning - nuclear transfer to alleviate compatibility problems
What is the difference between nuclear transplantation and human reproductive cloning?
-nuclear transplant, cells are grown in a petri dish, takes one week, is for disease tissue experiments, doesn't require a mother, doesn't produce a human, has similar medical and ethical implications to all stem cell research

-human cloning - make a baby, takes 9 months, requires surrogate mother, tough ethical questions, long term safety and efficacy unknown
what needs to be done to improve stem cell research
- need to develop better techniques for isolating and growing stem cells in culture (methods of purification need improvement)

-need to address safety issues

-overcome technical obstacles