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19 Cards in this Set

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Dysuria
- Painful urination
- Commonly associated with bacterial infections
- Other causes include other sources of inflammation, including neoplasms
Hematuria
- Blood in urine
- May be Macroscopic or Microscopic
- If pain also present, then often due to infection or a stone passing in the ureter
- If no pain, blood may be due to a kidney or bladder tumor, renal cyst, or prostatic device
- Glomerulonephritis is indicated by the presence of RBC CASTS in the URINE!
If you see RBC CASTS in the urine, what condition are you dealing with?
Glomerulonephritis
Pyuria
- WBC's in the urine
- Prominent in UTIs, but may also be a nonspecific sign of inflammation...
- WBC CASTS in urine indicate nephritis, which may or may not be infectious
WBC Casts in the urine indicate what condition?
Nephritis
Oliguria
- Reduction of urine output to less than 500 ml/day
- could be because of prerenal factors (dehydration, bilateral renal artery occlusion), renal factors (acute renal failure), or postrenal factors (bladder outlet obstruction)
Anuria
- abscence or severe reduction of urine output, generally less than 100 ml/day
- could be because of prerenal factors (dehydration, bilateral renal artery occlusion), renal factors (acute renal failure), or postrenal factors (bladder outlet obstruction)
Azotemia
- Accumulation of excess nitrogenous wastes in the blood in the form of urea, creatine, ammonia, or uric acid
- Often a sign of kidney failure but may also be the result of increased protein digestion (i.e. during a gastrointestinal bleed) or increased protein catabolism (ie severe burns)
- Uremia is often used as a synonym, but uremic syndrome is a separate clinical entity.
Cystitis
- Bladder infection
- Usually E. coli
- Frequency, urgency, dysuria
Bladder carcinoma: Risk factors
- Smoking
- Schistosomiasis
- Aniline dyes
Renal Artery stenosis
- Cause of secondary hypertension
- Fibromuscular dysplasia (young women)
- Atherosclerosis (older patients)
Glomerulonephritis
- Hematuria
- Proteinuria
- RBC casts
- Causes - Poststreptococcal, Goodpasture's syndrome,Diabetic glomerulosclerosis (a chronic form of this disease), Lupus (a chronic form of this disease)
Diabetic glomerulosclerosis
- Chronic Glomerulonephritis in which proteinuria gradually progresses to renal failure and uremia
Nephrotic syndrome
- Proteinuria
- Edema
- Hypoalbuminemia
- Minimal Change disease is the most common in children and Diabetis is the most common in adults
Acute Tubular Necrosis
- Due to ischemia or toxins - damage to the renal tubules from bad blood or lack of blood...
- Resolves in several weeks
- May need dialysis
Uremic Syndrome
- Symptomatic Renal failure is called this ...is not usually symptomatic until GFR is below 20 ml/min
- CNS changes
- Asterixis (flapping tremor)
- Pericarditis
- Nausea and Vomiting
- Yellow-brown skin
Polycystic Kidney Disease
- Autosomal dominant
- Usually asymptomatic until adulthood when it gradually progresses to end-stage renal disease
- Hematuria
- Hypertension - leads to intracranial Hemorrages
- Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
- 15% of patients with this disease will have subarachnoid hemorrages
Alport's Syndrome (Hereditary Nephritis)
- X-linked disorder related to type IV collagen that affects the glomerular basement membrane
- Deafness and Renal Failure - in males during early adulthood
Hyperkalemia
- >5.5 mEQ/L
- Muscular weakness
- Cardiac arrhythmias