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153 Cards in this Set

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paired abdominal organs that filter blood and produce urine.
Kidneys (nephro or reno)
located outside the peritoneal cavity.
Retroperitoneal
(fibrous tissue) connecting to other structures to hold kidneys in place
Renal Fasciae
concave depression on medial margin of kidney through which ureters, blood vessels, and nerves enter.
Hilus
the space in which hilus opens. Kidney cavity containing renal pelvis, blood vessels, nerves, and fat.
Renal sinus
outer part of kidney, extending between renal pyramids to form renal columns.
Renal cortex
inner part of kidney composed of conical structures, called renal pyramids.
Renal medulla
reservoir that collects urine, made up of major and minor calices.
Renal pelvis
urine colleting, irregular, sac-like structures of renal pelvis.
Calix or Calyx
tube that carries urine from kidney to bladder.
Ureter
cone-shaped structures which make up the medulla, stud the walls of the renal sinus.
Medullary pyramids
narrow, conical ends of renal pyramids
Papillae
functional and structural unit of kidney, including renal corpuscle and renal tubule.
Nephron
glomrulus and bowman’s capsule
Renal Corpuscle
minute tubule of kidney that secretes, collects, and transports urine and forms part of functional unit, the nephron.
Renal Tubule
glomerular capsule of kidney containing clusters of capillary channels (glumerulus)
Glomerular or Bowman’s capsule
coils of capillaries within bowman’s capsule
Glomerulus
plural form of glomerulus
Glomeruli
the renal corpuscles drain into lie in the cortical portion of the kidney.
Proximal convoluted tubule
U-shaped turn in convoluted tubule of kidney, located between proximal and distal ends, with both ascending and descending limbs.
Henles loop
portion of convoluted tubules between Henle’s loop and collecting tubules
Distal convoluted tubules
terminal collection passages that carry urine to renal pelvis.
Collecting tubules
Collecting tubules
Ureters
elastic musculomembranous sac for storing urine.
Lies in the pelvis and is formed of 3 layers of smooth muscle tissue lined with mucous membrane, contains 2 openings to receive urine from 2 ureters and another opening into urethra.
The Urinary bladder
the voiding of urine from the bladder
Micturition
tube that carries urine from bladder to surface of body.
The Urethra
the exterior opening of the urethra its located between the virgina and clitoris directly crainial to the vulva.
Urinary meatus
formation of calculi (stones) in the urinary tract
Urolithiasis
Urolithiasis
1. Prostatic
2. Membranous
3. Cavernous
the exterior opening of the urethra in the male
Urinary meatus
normal passage of normal urine.
Uresis
Pathologic conditions of the Urinary Tract
bladder inflammation
Cystitis
Pathologic conditions of the Urinary Tract
inflammation of kidneys
Nephritis
Pathologic conditions of the Urinary Tract
inflammation of ureter
Ureteritis
Pathologic conditions of the Urinary Tract
inflammation of urethra
Urethritis
Pathologic conditions of the Urinary Tract
inflammation of urethra and bladder
Urethrocystitis
lack of urine being excreted
Anuria
painful or difficult urination
Dysurian
presence of blood in urine
Hematuria
distension of kidney caused by obstruction of ureter.
Hydronephrosis
inability to control urination
Incontinence
kidney stone
Nephrolith
condition characterized by presence of kidney stones
Nephrolithiasis
any disease of kidney
Nephrosis
abnormally frequent urination of urine
Pollakiuria
pus in urine
Pyuria
pain resulting from passage of calculus in kidney or ureter.
Renal colic
keeping within body a substance that is usually excreted such as urine.
Retention
disturbed kidney function in which products of protein metabolism are found in blood and produce toxic conditions.
Uremia
total or partial resection of bladder
Cystectomy
removal of stone by incising the urinary bladder
Cystolethectomy
creation of opening into bladder
Cystostomy
incision into urinary bladder
Cystotomy
use of shock waves to crush kidney stones as substitute for surgical removal
Lithotripsy
excision of kidney
Nephrectomy
incision into kidney
Nephrotomy
creation of permanent passage through which ureter can discharge its contents.
Urethrostomy
incision of ureter
Ureterotomy
Cutting of the urethra to relieve a stricture
Urethrotomy
obtaining urine specimen under sterile conditions to check for microorganisms in urinary system
Catheterized urine specimen
determines kidneys ability to concentrate and dilute urine
Concentration test
x-ray study of bladder
Cystogram
fiberoptic endoscope to examine interior of bladder
Cystoscope
x-ray record of kidney’s and urinary tract after I.V. injection of dye substance
Intravenous pyelogram
measurement of urine excreted in 24 hour period to evaluate kidney function.
Total volume
egg-shaped male gland (also called testicles) that produces spermatozoa and secretes hormones
Testes (gonads) orchis
sac-like skin covered structure, hanging from perineal area containing testes, epididymides, and part of spermatic cords.
Scrotum
a fibrous white capsule that encloses each testicle.
Tunica albuginea
coiled tubules within testes that produce sperm.
Siminiferous tubules
specialized interstitial cells that secrete male sex hormone testosterone
Interstitial cells (cells of leydig)
pair of tightly coiled tube-like structures that secrete part of semen, serve as storage areas for sperm before ejaculation, and provide passageways for sperm from testes to the body surface.
Epididymis
where sperm cells are produced
Seminiferous tubules
the chief hormone of testicles
Testosterone
removal of testicles
Castration
excretory duct of testis that joins epididymis with ejaculatory duct.
Vas Deferens
white fibrous tissue encasing the Vas Deferens, blood and lymph vessels, and nerves.
Spermatic Cord
two short tubes formed by joining of Vas Deferens and ducts of seminal vesicles, which pass through prostate and extend to the urethra.
Ejaculatory ducts
surrounding urethra, secreting thick, alkaline substance that makes up part of the seminal fluid.
Prostate gland
located on either side of urethra whose alkaline secretion has protective function for sperm.
Bulbourethral (cowper’s) gland
male sex organ, containing urethra, which carries both reproductive tract secretions and urine to body
Penis
slight bulge at distal end of penis
Gland penis
secretion discharged by male reproductive organs containing spermatozoa.
Semen
two twisted pouches lying along dorsal surface of bladder, ventral to rectum, which secrete liquid part of semen and prostaglandins.
Seminal vesicles
two female glands that produce ova or eggs.
Ovaries
contains the ova
Follicles
female reproductive cell (plural of ova).
Ovum
ovarian hormones
Estrogen and Progesterone
yellow body formed by graafian follicles that has discharged its ovum.
Corpus luteum
pair of tubes extending from the uterus to the ovary on each side which pick up and convey expelled ova to the uterus.
Oviducts (uterine tubes or fallopian tubes)
funnel at end of uterine tube (oviduct) that catches ovaum.
Infundibulum
fringe-like process at ends of uterine tubes over ovaries.
Fimbria
ovum and sperm cell union.
Fertilization
thick-walled, hollow organ in pelvic cavity of female that houses and nourishes embryo and fetus.
Uterus (hytero)
body of uterus
Corpus
neck of uterus
Cervix
two horns of uterus.
Cornus
mucus membrane lining uterus
Endometruim
middle, muscular coat of uterus
Myometrium
external layer of uterus
Perimetrium
supports internal genitalia.
Broad ligament
located caudal to the cervix and cranial to vulva
Vagina
fold of mucous membrane partially blocking vaginal orifice.
Hymen
external genitalia.
Vulva
small mound of erectile tissue similar to male penis.
Clitoris
milk producing organs of mammals.
Mammary glands
the recurring set of physiological and behavioral changes that take place from one period of estrus to another
Estrous Cycle
the period immediately before estrus, characterized by development of the endometrium an ovarian follicles.
Proestrus
the periodic state of sexual excitement that immediately precedes ovulation, during which the female is most receptive to mating. (also called heat, period, being in heat)
Estrus
the period of sexual inactivity that follows estrus, during which the corpus luteum forms.
Metestrus
a short period of sexual quiescence between two estrus periods during which the uterus is prepared for a fertilized ovum.
Diestrus
a normal interval of ovarian quiescence and sexual inactivity in species such as the dog that do not cycle continuously. Anestrus is abnormal in polyestrous species such as the cow.
Anestrus
Release of ova occurs.
Ovulation
the white scar tissue resulting from the regression of a corpus luteum
Corpus Albicans
is the period of time between conception and parturition.
Pregnancy
when the placenta attaches to the endometrial lining of the uterus.
Implantation
membrane containing fetus floating in amniotic fluid
Aminion
outermost layer of placenta.
Chorion
early developing stage of organism
Embryo
developing offspring.
Fetus
outer of three germ layers of embryo
Ectoderm
innermost of three germ layers of the embryo.
Endoderm
pregnant
Gravid
ducts that carry the milk secretions of udder to and through teats.
Lactiferous ducts
middle of three germ layers of embryo, lying between ectoderm and endoderm.
Mesoderm
newborn
Neonate
process of giving birth
Parturition
vascular fetal organ within uterus that connects fetus to mother by way of umbilical cord for exchange of nutrients, oxygen, antibodies, and waste products.
Placenta
false pregnancy
Pseudocyesis
fertilized ovum
Zygote
inflammation of endometrium
Endometritis
inflammation of epididymis
Epididmitits
inflammation of mammary gland
Mastitis
inflammation of uterus
Metritis
ovarian inflammation
Oophoritis
inflammation of testicles
Orchitis
inflammation of prostate gland
Prostatitis
collection of pus in the uterine cavity
Pyometra
seminal vesicle inflammation
Seminal vesculitis
inflammation of vagina
Vaginitis
inflammation of vulva
Vulvitis
testes do not descend into scrotum
Cryptorchism
having both ovarian and testicular tissue.
Hermaphroditism
presence of more than two testes
Polyorchism
secretion of milk
Lactation
protrusion of uterus through vaginal orifice
Prolapse of uterus
enlargement of prostate
Prostatic hypertrophy
inability to reproduce
Sterility
surgical incision through abdominal and uterine walls for delivery of neonate.
Cesarean section
cutting up of dead fetus for removal from uterus
Embryotomy
removal of uterus
Hysterectomy
excision of one or both testes
Orchiectomy
excision of one or both ovaries
Ovariectomy
removal of uterus and ovaries
Ovariohysterectomy