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15 Cards in this Set

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genetics
the scientific study of heredity
trait
a characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes
heredity
the passing of traits from parents to offspring
gene
a segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait
chromosome
condensed DNA that carries genetic information
DNA
the genetic material in a cell that carries information about that cell and is passed from parent to offspring
allele
the different forms of a gene
dominant
an allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present
recessive
an allele that is masked or hidden when a dominant allele is present
homozygous
having two identical alleles for a trait
heterozygous
having two different alleles for a trait
genotype
an organism's genetic makeup or allele combinations (ex. XX)
phenotype
an organism's physical appearance or visible traits (ex. female)
meiosis
the process that occurs in producing sex cells (sperm and egg) by which the number of chromosomes is reduced in half.
mitosis
cell division in which two daughter cells are made that have the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell.