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44 Cards in this Set

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the process that creates an identical copy of the DNA
replication
the process that creates a strand of mRNA?
transcription
of the process that uses the mRNA to make a protein polymer
translation
What is a nucleotide made of
sugar, phosphate group and nitrogen base
Which nucleotides bond together with Adenosine in DNA?
Thymine
Which nucleotides bond together with Cytosine in DNA
Guanine
Why does DNA have to un-zip before it can be copied?
it must be open so new bases can pair
Which bonds must be broken before DNA can un-zip?
the bonds between paired nitrogen bases
What are the steps in DNA replication?
un-coiling, un-zipping, nucleotide pairing, C-T, G-C
What nucleotide is not in DNA and is present RNA?
Uracil
Where does transcription take place?
nucleus
Once the mRNA is made where does it go?
ribosome
What are the triplet pairs in mRNA called?
codon
What does the process of translation do?
make a specific protein
What is attached to each tRNA triplet code?
an amino acid
How many protein molecules and be made with a single strand of mRNA?
it can be used over and over until the cell has the amount of protein it needs
What is a protein?
It is a long chain of amino acids.
What is an enzyme?
They are a type of protein that controls chemical reactions.
When translation occurs what nucleotides are involved?
Uracil, Cytosine, Guanine, Adenine
Transcribe C T A G G A T
G A T C C T A
Translate the following strand of mRNA codons AAU
UUA
What is the shape of the DNA molecule?
Double Helix
Which 2 molecules bond to form the sides of the double helix?
sugar and phosphate
List the 6 things that make up DNA
sugar, phosphate, adnine, guanine, cytocine and thymine
Who created the double helix model of DNA?
James Watson and Francis Crick
What is a mutation?
Any abnormalities in the DNA.
What is the process by which a DNA molecule is copied.
replication
What is a mutagen?
any substances that can change the DNA
List 4 mutagens
x-rays
Chemical exposure
ultraviolet light
radioactivity
What is a chromosomal mutation?
parts of chromosomes are broken off and lost during mitosis or meiosis,
translation
process of converting RNA code into an amino acid sequence
frameshift mutation
a nucleotide is added or removed from a DNA molecule
point mutation
A change in a single base pair of the DNA molecule that affects the synthesis of an entire protein
tRNA
brings amino acids to the ribosomes for the assembly of proteins.
codon
set of three nitrogen bases representing an amino acid
replication
DNA makes a copy of itself
nitrogen bases
Thymine, adenine, guanine, and cytosine
During the process of transcription, DNA serves as the template for making
mRNA
RNA
ribonucleic acid
What is the difference between mRNA and tRNA?
mRNA carries the code (message) from the DNA to the ribosomes.

tRNA brings amino acids to the ribosome to make proteins
Describe the process of replication.
Uncoil
unzip - nucleotides break
free nucleotides attach

Each DNA molecules has a strand from the original DNA and one new strand.
inversion
the DNA code is inverted
EX:
ATTCGT changes to ATTGCT
translocation
part of a chromosome pair is moved and attaches to a different chromosome
deletion
one or more nucleotides that make up the DNA code are missing