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29 Cards in this Set

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Trait
characteristics that are inherited
Sex chromosome
either of a pair of chromosomes that determine whether an individual is male or female.
X chromosome
female
Y chromosome
male
Mendel
monk, took care of the garden
dominant
the gene that covers up the effect of the other one (R)
recessive
effect of a gene is hidden (r)
Gene
part of DNA that determines a trait
Chromosone
part of the cell that carries hereditary information in the form of genes -- one long piece of DNA.
Genetics
study of the inheritance of characteristics by children from parents
DNA
basic substance of heredity
Heterozygous (hybrid)
that both of the genes for a trait are difference (Tt, Rr)
Homozygous (purebred)
that both of the genes for a trait are exactly the same (rr, bb, tt)
Genotype
the genetic make-up of a trait
phenotype
this is what the organisms looks like
Mutation
a sudden change in a gene or a chromosone
a chart that shows all of the members of the family, specifically following one specific trait
pedigree chart
genetics
a unit of heredity
Punnet
came up with the Punnet square
F1
First generation
Laws of segregation
Mendel's conclusion that a parent passes on one alle for each trait to its offspring
heredity
the passing on of a characteristics from parents to offspring
gametes
another name for sex cells
fertilization
the uniting of male and female gameter
Amniocentesis
the surgical insertion of a hollow needle through the abdominal wall and into the uterus of a pregnant female and the aspiration of fluid from the amniotic sac for analysis
Karyotype
Fetal cells contained in the amniotic fluid also can be cultured and the karyotype (chromosome morphology) determined to identify chromosomal abnormality
Incomplete dominance
neither gene if dominant but the effects of the genes will mix
CoDominance
neither gene is dominant but they both show
mytoses
process by which body cells divide into two similar cells