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44 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
gametes
reproductive cells ova or sperm
zygote
sperm and egg merge and a living cell is formed
chromosomes
23 pairs; hereditary units received from parents carried in these structures
DNA is responsible for _______________________
transmitting heriditary information
gene
basic unit of heredity;
100,000 genes in humans
sex chromosomes are the ____pair
23rd
XX is ____ XY is _____
girl boy
genotype
complete genetic makeup including recessive genes
phenotype indicates what
an individual's observable traits
carriers
unobservable traits
dominant-recessive pattern
type of nonadditive pattern--either /or not a compromise
behavioral genetics
genes behave differently whether they are inherited from mom or dad
x-linked genes
some genes called this because they're on the x chromosome
monozygotic twins
identical twins;
one zygote two babies
dizygotic twins
fraternal twins;
2 eggs, 2 sperm
t/f
culture plays a rold in the expression of various characteristics
true
in most cases the extra chromosome at birth is lethal within months after birth
true
down symdrome (trisomy 21)
extra chromosome on the 21st pair
PKU
abnormal digestion of certain proteins; inherited by recessive gene; preventable through dietary modifications
huntington's disease
caused by dominant gene;
mental illness in adulthood
kleinfelter's syndrome
XXY; male appearance, but w/o sex organs
fragile x syndrome
x chromosome attached thinly that it looks like it will break off
turner's syndrome
xo pattern; one sex chromosome
germinal stage
marked by conception
embrionic stage
3-8th week;
3 layers of the organism
ectoderm, mesoderm,endoderm
will form the body system
teratogens
substances and conditions (drugs, radiation) that increase the risk of abnormalities
examples of teratogens
rubella;hiv, aids
low birth weight is defines as
less than 5.5 pounds
brazelton national assessment scale
apgar scale
assesses behavioral and neural functioning

assesses newborn's color and reflexes.
object permanence
awareness that objects which no longer in view still exist
reversal
infant able to reverse an action; i.e. refilling an emptied container
intermodal perception
ability to associate information from one sense with information from another;
hearing with seeing
cross-modal perception
ability to use information from one sense to IMAGINE something in another
talking on the phone--imagines what caller looks like
social-smile
babies imitate sounds and facial expressions
underextend
applying a word to refer to a narrower category of objects
overextension
applies words more broadly than their intended meaning
separation anxiety emerges at _____ and peaks at _______
8 mos
14 mos
infants respond to their face in the mirror at what age
15-24 mos
3 major categories of temperament or infant personality
extroverted, placid or shy
extroversion
sociability or inhibition to unfamiliar objects and expressions
extroversion and shyness are ________
inherited
behaviorists hold that ...
personality is shaped through reinforcements and punishments by parents
the Strange situation was a study involving what 3 theories
insecurely attached-resistant; insecurely attached-avoidant; securely attached